The Wang Jingwei Government was a government under the leadership of Wang Jingwei in the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japan in March 1940. It is also sometimes called the Nanjing Nationalist Government or the Republic of China-Nanjing. Other names are "Wang Jingwei Regime" (汪精衛政權, Wāng Jīngwèi Zhèngquán) or simply "Nanjing regime" or the "New China".
The Wang Jingwei Government was one of several puppet states of the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), and was meant to rival the legitimacy the government of Chiang Kai-shek, which was of the same name in Chongqing. Wang Jingwei was a Kuomintang (KMT) leftist who had broken away from Chiang Kai-Shek's government in March 1940 and defected to the Japanese invaders.
Claiming to be the rightful government of the Republic of China, it flew the same flag and displayed the same emblem as Chiang Kai-shek's National Government. However, it was widely regarded as a puppet state and enjoyed no diplomatic recognition, except from the states of the Anti-Comintern Pact.
The Nanjing Nationalist Government was nominally a reintegration of several entities that Japan had established in northern and central China, including the Reformed Government of the Republic of China of eastern China, the Provisional Government of the Republic of China of northern China, and the Mengjiang government in Inner Mongolia, though in reality northern China and Inner Mongolia stayed relatively free of its influence.
Officially the Reformed State as founded during 30th of March 1940 and Wang Jingwei became head of state with Japanese support among declared war on the allies in 9th January, 1943.
Therefore, the Reformed Government actually controlled this region: The actual borders changed as the Japanese gained territory in the war. Thus, during the December 1941 Japanese offensive, the Reformed Government extended its control to Hunan, Hubei, and parts of Jiangxi province. The port of Shanghai and the towns of Hankou and Wuchang were also under control of the Reformed Government at various times.
The Japanese-controlled provinces of Shandong and Hebei were also theoretically part of this political entity, although they were actually administered by the Commander of the Japanese North Front, under a separate Japanese-controlled government based in Beijing. Like the Northern Front, the southern sectors had their own Japanese military commander and government based in Guangzhou.Each front acted as its own military unit with its own political and economic administration as well as its own Japanese military commander.
Other founts during 1940 period related why your total extension of territory are 1,264,000 km2 During the war, the Imperial Japanese Army committed numerous atrocities in the area controlled by the Reformed Government, such as the so-called "mopping up" operations to frighten the populace. General Toshizo Nishio, the Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army's expeditionary forces in mainland China, was subsequently replaced by General Neiji Okamura. On September 9 1945, following Japan's defeat in World War II, the Japanese forces in the area surrendered to General He Yingqin of the National Revolutionary army.
After obtaining Japanese approval to establish a nationalist government, Wang Jingwei ordered the Sixth Kuomintang Representative Congress to establish the government in Nanjing. The dedication occurred in the Conference Hall, and both the "blue-sky white-sun red-earth" national flag and the "blue-sky white-sun" Nationalist Party flag were unveiled, flanking a large portrait of Sun Yat-Sen.
On the day the new government was formed, just before the session of the "Central Political Conference" began, Wang visited Sun's tomb in Nanjing's Purple Mountain in an attempt to establish the legitimacy of his government as Sun's successor. Wang had been a high-level official of the Nationalist government and, as a confidant to Sun, had transcribed Sun's will, the Zongli's Testament. To discredit the legitimacy of the Chongqing government, Wang adopted Sun's flag in the hope that this would establish him as the rightful successor to Sun and bring the government back to Nanjing.
The Beijing administration (East Yi Anti-Communist Autonomous Administration) was under the commander-in-chief of the Japanese North China Front until the Yellow River area fell within the sphere of influence of the Central Chinese Front. During this same period the area from middle Zhejiang to the Canton region was administered by the South Chinese Front. These small, largely independent fiefdoms had local money, local leaders, and frequent squabbles.
The case of the Nanjing pro-Japanese administration was researched by Chester Holcombe, a young American journalist, who arrived in Shanghai to interview the head of government. This interview was published in the Shanghai newspaper, The China Weekly Review, under the title "The Nanjing Prisoner", to the annoyance of the Japanese Army and the local civil establishment. Holcombe was blacklisted and threatened with death if he were to return.
Wang Jingwei travelled to Tokyo in 1941 for meetings with his Japanese overseers. In Tokyo the Nanjing Government Minister and Vice president Chou Fo-hai commented to the Asahi Shimbun that the Japanese establishment was making little progress in the Nanjing area. This quote provoked anger from Kumataro Honda, the Japanese Ambassador and Consul in Nanjing. Chou Fo-hai petitioned for total control of its central provinces for the National Government. Japanese Army Officer Teiichi Suzuki was charged with providing military guidance for Wang Jingwei's new regime at Nanking, also himself representing part of the real power in the country.
A common monopolistic economic policy was applied in the area, to the benefit of Japanese zaibatsu and local representatives, with the permission of the Japanese Army, when supposedly these companies had equal treatment with the local Chinese companies by the Government. The President of the Yuan legislature in Nanjing, Cheng Kung-po, commented on this to the Kaizo Japanese review. The Nanjing Nationalist Government of the Republic of China had an Embassy in Yokohama (as did Manchukuo).
Structure of Local Administration Chinese Reformed State
Foreign Representatives and Diplomatic Personnel in Chinese Reformed State
In the Japanese-occupied territories, the prices of basic necessities rose substantially. In 1941, they increased eleven-fold in Shanghai. Similar inflation occurred in Manchukuo, despite heavily-centralized economic control by the Japanese.
The populations of the major cities were:
Other population estimates are as follows:
Others sources during 1940 related why total resident cypher rosed to 182,000,000.
The Japanese Army organized a local army, supposedly to defend the Nanjing Regime-controlled China. In reality, it served as a second line of defense and security forces in the Second Sino-Japanese war. For this purpose, they organized a Collaborationist air force,(Reformed Government of China Air Force (1938) renamed National Government of China Air Force (1940)) and sended some gliders for training pourposes;later giving them some a:
For the Collaborationist army, Japan provided:
For the Collaborationist navy Imperial navy provided some wartime captured ships how:
This was probably why the Imperial Japanese Navy,(Shanghai SNLF,ones 746 men based in Shanghai port belonged in China Theater Fleet among Yangtze SNLF a river squadron of 1st China Fleet,detached near Yangtze river and Hankow SNLF based in Hankow and detached in Middle River Division and Yangtze River Fleet,joining others naval units) could assume total control of the Shanghai seaport, and river ports in Hankow and Wuchang among extended your influence to Guangzhou seaport with Canton SNLF belonged in Canton Special Base Force.The regime also had a regular police force under Japanese control, very likely similar to the situation at Kangde. The local politicians and media consistently provided pro-Japanese propaganda.It included phrases praising the "heroic efforts of the Imperial troops", and argued for a "national defence against Communism and Western interests".
Chiang Kai-shek's forces captured numerous members of Wang Chingwei's army during military engagements. Enemy prisoners of low rank were persuaded to renege and fight alongside anti-Japanese forces, but high-ranking prisoners were executed. Leaders of the military include:
The Japanese used various methods for subjugating the local populace in the Central provinces. Initially, fear was used to maintain order in the regions, but this approach was changed, following appraisals by Japanese military ideologists. In 1939, the Japanese army attempted some populist policies, including:
Buddhist leaders of the occupied Chinese territories ("Shao-Kung") were also forced to give public speeches and via the media to persuade the populace of the virtues of a Chinese alliance with Japan, and advocate the breaking-off of all relations with Western powers.
In 1938, a manifesto was launched in Shanghai, reminding the populace of the track record of the Japanese alliance in maintaining "moral supremacy", and accusing Generallissimo Chiang Kai-Shek of treason for maintaining the Western alliance.
In support of such efforts and reinforzed its control of held-areas in 1941 period,Wang Jingwei proposed the "Qingxiang Weinyuan"(Qingxiang Plan) for applied in the lower course of the Yangtze River regions.
Him ordered to government organized the "Qingxiang Weiyuanhui" (Qingxiang Plan Committee),conformed by Wang Jingwei (Chairman),Zhou Fohai and Chen Gongbo (I and II Vice-Chairmans) and Li Shiqun (Secretary).this plan started in July 1941 and Wang sustained that areas was applied would convert "heping fangong jianguo mofanqu" (model areas of peace,anti-communism,and rebuilding the country)
Distribution of crops
Distribution of animals
Distribution Of Land Usage For Farming
Distribution Of Animal Husbandry
Transportation Distribution In Terms Of Localities
For mining resources, see Empire of Japan (natural resources, Asia mainland and Pacific areas, after 1937)
To complement the efforts of the South Manchurian Railway Company, the Japanese civil establishment and the Imperial Japanese Army, in collaboration with Chinese local businessmen, founded the North China Railway Company, with branches in Hopei, Shangtung and other Northern Chinese areas, in order to link up the north China and central China railways. At about the same time, the pro-Japanese government in Nanjing, together with "native" Japanese establishments and the Japanese Central Chinese Army authorities, organized the Central China Railway Company to link up the railways of Ahnwei, Kiangsu, north Chekiang, and areas which were near to or were held by the Southern Japanese Chinese Army, for economic and strategic reasons. It was probably for these same reasons that the Japanese organized a Chinese merchant shipping vessel company and Commerce Authority Entity for managing commercial traffic in the Shanghai international port in those days.
Japanese authorities also reinforced Chinese industrial monopolies in the occupied territories, modelling them on Naiga Wata Kaisha (which specialized in managing affairs of the cotton industry, partly for the Japanese government), or private zaibatsus, such as Mitsubishi and others.