Curtain walls were originally used to protect medieval castles and were built of stone. Modern curtain walls are typically designed with extruded aluminium members, although the first curtain walls were made of steel. The aluminium frame is typically infilled with glass, which provides an architecturally pleasing building, as well as benefits such as daylighting. However, parameters related to solar gain control, such as thermal comfort and visual comfort are more difficult to control when using highly-glazed curtain walls. Other common infills include: stone veneer, metal panels, louvers, and operable windows or vents.
Curtain walls differ from storefront systems in that they are designed to span multiple floors, and take into consideration design requirements such as: thermal expansion and contraction; building sway and movement; water diversion; and thermal efficiency for cost-effective heating, cooling, and lighting in the building.
A Curtain wall is used to describe the set of walls that surround and protect the interior (bailey) of a medieval castle. These walls are often connected by a series of towers or mural towers to add strength and provide for better defense of the ground outside the castle, and are connected like a curtain draped between these posts. Additional provisions and buildings were often enclosed by such a construction, designed to help a garrison last longer during a siege by enemy forces. Examples of curtain walls as part of castles are at Muchalls Castle, Scotland and Dunstanburgh Castle, England, the latter of which is in a ruined state.
Prior to the middle of the nineteenth century, buildings were constructed with the exterior walls of the building (bearing walls, typically masonry) supporting the load of the entire structure. The development and widespread use of structural steel and later reinforced concrete allowed relatively small columns to support large loads and the exterior walls of buildings were no longer required for structural support. The exterior walls could be non-bearing, and thus much lighter and more open than the masonry bearing walls of the past. This gave way to increased use of glass as an exterior façade, and the modern day curtain wall was born.
The first curtain walls were made with steel mullions, and the plate glass was attached to the mullions with asbestos or fiberglass modified glazing compound. Eventually silicone sealants or glazing tape were substituted. Some designs included an outer cap to hold the glass in place and to protect the integrity of the seals. The first curtain wall installed in New York City was this type of construction. Earlier modernist examples are the Bauhaus in Dessau and the Hallidie Building in San Francisco. The 1970’s began the widespread use of aluminum extrusions for mullions. Aluminum offers the unique advantage of being able to be easily extruded into nearly any shape required for design and aesthetic purposes. Today, the design complexity and shapes available are nearly limitless. Custom shapes can be designed and manufactured with relative ease.
Similarly, sealing methods and types have evolved over the years, and as a result, today’s curtain walls are high performance systems which require little maintenance.Stick systems The vast majority of curtain walls are installed long pieces (referred to as sticks) between floors vertically and between vertical members horizontally. Framing members may be fabricated in a shop environment, but all installation and glazing is typically performed at the jobsite.Unitized systems Unitized curtain walls entail factory fabrication and assembly of panels and may include factory glazing. These completed units are hung on the building structure to form the building enclosure. Unitized curtain wall has the advantages of: speed; lower field installation costs; and quality control within an interior climate controlled environment. The economic benefits are typically realized on large projects or in areas of high field labor rates.Rainscreen principle A common feature in curtain wall technology, the rainscreen principle theorizes that equilibrium of air pressure between the outside and inside of the "rainscreen" prevents water penetration into the building itself. For example the glass is captured between an inner and an outer gasket in a space called the glazing rebate. The glazing rebate is ventilated to the exterior so that the pressure on the inner and outer sides of the exterior gasket is the same. When the pressure is equal across this gasket water cannot be drawn through joints or defects in the gasket.
Since the curtain wall is at the exterior of the building, it becomes the first line of defense in a bomb attack. As such, blast resistant curtain walls must be designed to withstand such forces without compromising the interior of the building to protect its occupants. Since blast loads are very high loads with short durations, the curtain wall response should be analyzed in a dynamic load analysis, with full-scale mock-up testing performed prior to design completion and installation.
Blast resistant glazing consists of laminated glass, which is meant to break but not separate from the mullions. Similar technology is used in hurricane-prone areas for the protection from wind-borne debris.
Water penetration is defined as any water passing from the exterior of the building through to the interior of the curtain wall system. Sometimes, depending on the building specifications, a small amount of controlled water on the interior is deemed acceptable. To test the ability of a curtain wall to withstand water penetration, a water rack is placed in front a mock-up of the wall with a positive air pressure applied to the wall. This represents a wind driven heavy rain on the wall. Field tests are also performed on installed curtain walls, in which a water hose is sprayed on the wall for a specified time.
Deflection limits are typically expressed as the distance between anchor points divided by a constant number. A deflection limit of L/175 is common in curtain wall specifications, based on experience with deflection limits that are unlikely to cause damage to the glass held by the mullion. Say a given curtain wall is anchored at 12 foot (144 in) floor heights. The allowable deflection would then be 144/175 = 0.823 inches, which means the wall is allowed to deflect inward or outward a maximum of 0.823 inches at the maximum wind pressure.
Deflection in mullions is controlled by different shapes and depths of curtain wall members. The depth of a given curtain wall system is usually controlled by the area moment of inertia required to keep deflection limits under the specification. Another way to limit deflections in a given section is to add steel reinforcement to the inside tube of the mullion. Since steel deflects at 1/3 the rate of aluminum, the steel will resist much of the load at a lower cost or smaller depth.
Thermal conductivity of the curtain wall system is important because of heat loss through the wall, which affects the heating and cooling costs of the building. On a poorly performing curtain wall, condensation may form on the interior of the mullions. This could cause damage to adjacent interior trim and walls.
Regardless of the material, infills are typically referred to as glazing, and the installer of the infill is referred to as a glazier.
By far the most common glazing type, glass can be of an almost infinite combination of color, thickness, and opacity. For commercial construction, the two most common thicknesses are 1/4 inch (6 mm) monolithic and 1 inch (25 mm) insulating glass. Presently, 1/4 inch glass is typically used only in spandrel areas, while insulating glass is used for the rest of the building (sometimes spandrel glass is specified as insulating glass as well). The 1 inch insulation glass is typically made up of two 1/4-inch lites of glass with a 1/2 inch (12 mm) airspace. The air inside is usually atmospheric air, but some inert gases, such as argon, may be used to offer better thermal transmittance values. In residential construction, thicknesses commonly used are 1/8 inch (3 mm) monolithic and 5/8 inch (16 mm) insulating glass. Larger thicknesses are typically employed for buildings or areas with higher thermal, relative humidity, or sound transmission requirements, such as laboratory areas or recording studios.
Glass may be used which is transparent, translucent, or opaque, or in varying degrees thereof. Transparent glass usually refers to vision glass in a curtain wall. Spandrel or vision glass may also contain translucent glass, which could be for security or aesthetic purposes. Opaque glass is used in areas to hide a column or spandrel beam or shear wall behind the curtain wall. Another method of hiding spandrel areas is through shadow box construction (providing a dark enclosed space behind the transparent or translucent glass). Shadow box construction creates a perception of depth behind the glass that is sometimes desired.
Firestopping at the "perimeter slab edge", which is a gap between the floor and the backpan of the curtain wall is essential to slow the passage of fire and combustion gases between floors. Spandrel areas must have non-combustible insulation at the interior face of the curtain wall. Some building codes require the mullion to be wrapped in heat-retarding insulation near the ceiling to prevent the mullions from melting and spreading the fire to the floor above. It is important to note that the firestop at the perimeter slab edge is considered a continuation of the fire-resistance rating of the floor slab. The curtain wall itself, however, is not ordinarily required to have a rating. This causes a quandary as Compartmentalization (fire protection) is typically based upon closed compartments to avoid fire and smoke migrations beyond each engaged compartment. A curtain wall by its very nature prevents the completion of the compartment (or envelope). The use of fire sprinklers has been shown to mitigate this matter. As such, unless the building is sprinklered, fire may still travel up the curtain wall, if the glass on the exposed floor is shattered due to fire influence, causing flames to lick up the outside of the building. Falling glass can endanger pedestrians, firefighters and firehoses below. An example of this is the First Interstate Bank Fire in Los Angeles, California. The fire here leapfrogged up the tower by shattering the glass and then consuming the aluminium skeleton holding the glass. Aluminium's melting temperature is 660°C, whereas building fires can reach 1,100°C. The melting point of aluminium is typically reached within minutes of the start of a fire. Firestops for such building joints can be qualified to UL 2079 -- Tests for Fire Resistance of Building Joint Systems Sprinklering of each floor has a profoundly positive effect on the fire safety of buildings with curtain walls. In the case of the aforementioned fire, it was specifically the activation of the newly installed sprinkler system, which halted the advance of the fire and allowed effective suppression. Had this not occurred, the tower would have collapsed onto fire crews and into an adjacent building, while on fire. Exceptionally sound cementitious spray fireproofing also helped to delay and ultimately to avoid the possible collapse of the building, due to having the structural steel skeleton of the building reach the critical temperature, as the post-mortem fire investigation report indicated. This fire proved the positive collective effect of both active fire protection (sprinklers) and passive fire protection (fireproofing).
Fireman knock-out glazing panels are often required for venting and emergency access from the exterior. Knock-out panels are generally fully tempered glass to allow full fracturing of the panel into small pieces and relatively safe removal from the opening.
Aluminum frames are generally painted or anodized. Factory applied fluoropolymer thermoset coatings have good resistance to environmental degradation and require only periodic cleaning. Recoating with an air-dry fluoropolymer coating is possible but requires special surface preparation and is not as durable as the baked-on original coating.
Anodized aluminum frames cannot be "re-anodized" in place, but can be cleaned and protected by proprietary clear coatings to improve appearance and durability.
Exposed glazing seals and gaskets require inspection and maintenance to minimize water penetration, and to limit exposure of frame seals and insulating glass seals to wetting.
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