Wade

Wade

Wade, Abdoulaye, 1926-, Senegalese political leader. He studied at several French universities, receiving (1970) a doctorate in law and economics from the Sorbonne, and was a law professor and lawyer in France before returning to Senegal to practice law and teach it at the Univ. of Dakar. In 1974 he founded the liberal Senegalese Democratic party (PDS), the first to oppose President Léopold Senghor's ruling Socialist party. Wade was elected to parliament in 1978. He ran for president against Senghor in 1978 and 1983 and against Senghor's hand-picked successor, Abdou Diouf, in 1988 and 1993, and was defeated each time, although the 1988 results were widely disputed. Wade, who served (1991-92) as minister of state, was arrested in 1994 (for inciting riot) and acquitted, and again served (1995-98) as minister of state. In 2000 he finally defeated Diouf and won the presidency, ending four decades of Socialist rule. Despite rampant unemployment, which he vowed to ameliorate, Wade was reelected in 2007. In office, he has fought corruption and instituted free-market reforms and literacy, public health, and antipoverty measures.
Wade, Benjamin Franklin, 1800-1878, U.S. senator from Ohio (1851-69), b. near Springfield, Mass. He moved (1821) to Ohio and studied law. He was successively prosecuting attorney of Ashtabula co., state senator, and presiding judge of the third judicial district in Ohio before becoming a Whig senator. He was reelected as a Republican. An uncompromising abolitionist, he denounced the fugitive slave laws, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and other proslavery measures. During the Civil War, Wade and his radical Republican colleagues set up the meddlesome committee on the conduct of the war, of which he was chairman. The Wade-Davis Bill, drawn up with Representative Henry W. Davis, was approved (July, 1864) by Congress as the committee's plan of Reconstruction. Lincoln, who had already begun a more lenient program, killed it with a pocket veto, for which he was vindictively attacked in the Wade-Davis Manifesto (Aug. 5, 1864). Later the congressional plan prevailed over the opposition of President Andrew Johnson. As president protempore of the Senate, Wade was next in line for the presidency, and he eagerly awaited Johnson's conviction on impeachment charges. Not long after Johnson's acquittal Wade was denied reelection to the Senate and returned to law practice.
Hampton, Wade, c.1752-1835, American planter and soldier, b. Halifax co., Va. He served in the American Revolution and took part in South Carolina politics, opposing the ratification of the U.S. Constitution and serving as a U.S. Representative (1795-97, 1803-5). He developed large cotton plantations in South Carolina before 1800, held sugar plantations in Mississippi after 1811, and was reputed to be the wealthiest planter of his day in America. A major general in the War of 1812, Hampton commanded a force that was to march from N New York to the St. Lawrence River and then, after effecting a union with Gen. James Wilkinson's army, move against Montreal. He was defeated by a smaller British force in the battle of Chateaugay; and, blamed by Wilkinson for the failure of the campaign, he resigned his command. Wade Hampton (1818-1902) was his grandson.
Hampton, Wade, 1818-1902, Confederate general in the American Civil War, b. Charleston, S.C.; grandson of Wade Hampton (c.1752-1835). Hampton, a wealthy planter, served (1852-61) in the South Carolina legislature. In the Civil War he raised Hampton's Legion, which he led at the first battle of Bull Run. He commanded an infantry brigade in the Peninsular campaign, being made a brigadier general in May, 1862, but in July was given a brigade in the cavalry. He was active in most of Jeb Stuart's operations (1862-64) and upon Stuart's death in 1864 succeeded to the command of the cavalry corps. He took part in the fighting around Richmond and Petersburg and later with part of his force was engaged in covering Joseph E. Johnston's army until the surrender to General Sherman in Apr., 1865. He had been promoted lieutenant general in Feb., 1865. In the election of 1876, the Democrats of South Carolina were led to victory by Hampton, their candidate for governor. Daniel H. Chamberlain, the carpetbagger incumbent, disputed the result, but when federal troops were withdrawn (Apr., 1877), he had no support. More for this political triumph, which restored home rule, than for his military prowess Hampton is considered a state hero. He was reelected as governor in 1878 and in 1879 became a U.S. Senator. Hampton remained the dominant figure in South Carolina politics until 1890, when Benjamin Tillman led a successful revolt against Hampton's rule, and Hampton lost his Senate seat. He was (1893-99) commissioner of Pacific railroads.

See E. L. Wells, Hampton and His Cavalry (1899) and Hampton and Reconstruction (1907); A. B. Williams, Hampton and His Red Shirts (1935, repr. 1970); M. W. Wellman, Giant in Gray (1949); H. M. Jarrell, Wade Hampton and the Negro (1949, repr. 1969).

(born Oct. 27, 1800, Springfield, Mass., U.S.—died March 2, 1878, Jefferson, Ohio) U.S. politician. He practiced law in Ohio before serving in the U.S. Senate (1851–69), where he opposed the extension of slavery and the Kansas-Nebraska Act. In the American Civil War he joined the Radical Republicans in demanding vigorous prosecution of the war and headed a joint congressional committee to investigate the Union military effort. He cosponsored the Wade-Davis Bill, which brought him into conflict with Abraham Lincoln. Opposed to Pres. Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction policies, he voted for his removal from office at his Senate trial and, as Senate president pro tem, prepared to succeed Johnson. Disappointed by the trial's outcome, he was later defeated for reelection.

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Wade Hampton

(born March 28, 1818, Charleston, S.C., U.S.—died April 11, 1902, Columbia, S.C.) U.S. political leader and Confederate army officer. He studied law but never practiced, prefering instead to manage his family's plantations in Mississippi and South Carolina. From 1852 to 1861 he served in the South Carolina legislature. In the American Civil War he organized and led “Hampton's Legion” of South Carolina troops for the Confederate States of America and saw combat in many key battles. He eventually served as second in command under Jeb Stuart. After Stuart's death, Hampton was promoted to major general and led the cavalry (1864). After the war he sought reconciliation but opposed the policies of Reconstruction. As governor of South Carolina (1876–79), he led the fight to restore white supremacy. He later served in the U.S. Senate (1879–91).

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(1973) Decision of the Supreme Court of the United States that established a woman's right to have an abortion without undue interference from the government. A Texas law prohibiting abortions was challenged by an unmarried pregnant woman (pseudonymously named Jane Roe), and the court ruled in her favour, finding that the state had violated her right to privacy (see rights of privacy). Harry Blackmun, writing for the seven-member majority, argued that the state's legitimate concern for the protection of prenatal life increased as a pregnancy advanced. While allowing that the state might forbid abortions during a pregnancy's third trimester, he held that a woman was enh1d to obtain an abortion freely, after medical consultation, during the first trimester and in an authorized clinic during the second trimester. The Roe decision, perhaps the most controversial in the Supreme Court's history, remains at the centre of the issue of abortion rights. Repeated challenges since 1973, such as Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, have narrowed the scope of Roe but have not overturned it.

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Wade Hampton

(born March 28, 1818, Charleston, S.C., U.S.—died April 11, 1902, Columbia, S.C.) U.S. political leader and Confederate army officer. He studied law but never practiced, prefering instead to manage his family's plantations in Mississippi and South Carolina. From 1852 to 1861 he served in the South Carolina legislature. In the American Civil War he organized and led “Hampton's Legion” of South Carolina troops for the Confederate States of America and saw combat in many key battles. He eventually served as second in command under Jeb Stuart. After Stuart's death, Hampton was promoted to major general and led the cavalry (1864). After the war he sought reconciliation but opposed the policies of Reconstruction. As governor of South Carolina (1876–79), he led the fight to restore white supremacy. He later served in the U.S. Senate (1879–91).

Learn more about Hampton, Wade with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 27, 1800, Springfield, Mass., U.S.—died March 2, 1878, Jefferson, Ohio) U.S. politician. He practiced law in Ohio before serving in the U.S. Senate (1851–69), where he opposed the extension of slavery and the Kansas-Nebraska Act. In the American Civil War he joined the Radical Republicans in demanding vigorous prosecution of the war and headed a joint congressional committee to investigate the Union military effort. He cosponsored the Wade-Davis Bill, which brought him into conflict with Abraham Lincoln. Opposed to Pres. Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction policies, he voted for his removal from office at his Senate trial and, as Senate president pro tem, prepared to succeed Johnson. Disappointed by the trial's outcome, he was later defeated for reelection.

Learn more about Wade, Benjamin F(ranklin) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Wade-Giles sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system (phonetic notation and transcription) for the Mandarin language used in Beijing. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade in the mid-19th century, and reached settled form with Herbert Giles' Chinese-English dictionary of 1892.

Wade-Giles was the main system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in several standard reference books and in all books about China published before 1979. It replaced the Nanjing-based romanization systems that had been common until late in the 19th century. It has mostly been replaced by the pinyin system today, but parts of it, especially the names of individuals and certain cities remain in use in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

History

Wade-Giles was developed by Thomas Francis Wade, a British ambassador in China and Chinese scholar who was the first professor of Chinese at Cambridge University. Wade published the first Chinese textbook in English in 1867. The system was refined in 1912 by Herbert Allen Giles, a British diplomat in China.

The Wade-Giles system was designed to transcribe Chinese terms, for Chinese specialists. This origin has led to a general sense that the system is non-intuitive for non-specialists and not useful for teaching Chinese pronunciation.

The Republic of China (Taiwan) has used Wade-Giles for decades as the de facto standard, co-existing with several official but obscure Romanizations in succession, namely, Gwoyeu Romatzyh (1928), MPS II (1986), and Tongyong Pinyin (2000). Taiwanese place names are still being virtually written in Wade-Giles, and many Chinese Americans and Canadians also write their Chinese names in Wade-Giles.

The Hanyu Pinyin system is the official and most widely used system in the People's Republic of China. In Singapore, Pinyin is taught in national schools and widely used in official documents, although a reversal of government policy changed the requirement to register people's Chinese names in Pinyin. Wade-Giles spellings and Pinyin spellings for Taiwanese place names and words long accepted in English usage are still used interchangeably in English-language texts in both countries.

Technical aspects

One symbol-multiple sounds

A common complaint about the Wade-Giles system is the representation of the unaspirated-aspirated stop consonant pairs using apostrophes: p, p', t, t', k, k', ch, ch'. However, the use of apostrophes preserves b, d, g, and j for the romanization of Chinese languages containing voiced consonants, such as Shanghainese (which has a full set of voiced consonants) and Taiwanese (Hō-ló-oē) whose century-old Pe̍h-ōe-jī (POJ, often called Missionary Romanisation) is similar to Wade-Giles. POJ, Legge romanization, Simplified Wade, and EFEO Chinese transcription use the letter h instead of an apostrophe to indicate aspiration (this is similar to the superscript h used in IPA). The convention of the apostrophe or "h" to denote aspiration is also found in romanizations of other Asian languages, such as McCune-Reischauer for Korean and ISO 11940 for Thai.

People unfamiliar with Wade-Giles often ignore the apostrophes, even so far as leaving them out when copying texts, unaware that they represent vital information. Hanyu Pinyin addresses this issue by employing the Latin letters customarily used for voiced stops, unneeded in Mandarin, to represent the unaspirated stops: b, p, d, t, g, k, j, q, zh, ch.

Partly because of the popular omission of the apostrophe, the four sounds represented in Hanyu Pinyin by j, q, zh, and ch all become ch in many literature and personal names. However, were the diacritics to be kept, the system reveals a symmetry that leaves no overlap:

  • The non-retroflex ch (Pinyin j) and ch' (Pinyin q) are always before either i or ü.
  • The retroflex ch (Pinyin zh) and ch' (Pinyin ch) are always before a, e, ih, o, or u.

Furthermore, Wade uses lo for three distinct sounds (le, luo, and lo in Pinyin); jo for two (re and ruo); and no for two (ne and nuo).

One sound-multiple symbols

In addition to several sounds presented using the same letter(s), sometimes, one single sound is represented using several sets of letters. There exists two versions of Wade-Giles Romanizations for each of the Pinyin syllables zi, ci, and si.

  • The older version writes tsû, ts'û, and ssû
  • The newer version writes:
    • tzu for tsû, but it still remains ts- before other vowels, as in tsung for the Pinyin zong.
    • tz'u for ts'û, but remains ts'- before other vowels.
    • szu or ssu for ssû, but is s- before other vowels. Note, not ss-.

Precision with empty rime

On the other hand, Wade-Giles shows precisions not found in other major Romanizations in regard to the rendering of the two types of empty rimes ():

  • -u (formerly û) after the sibilant tz, tz', and s (Pinyin z, c, and s).
  • -ih after the retroflex ch, ch', sh, and j (Pinyin zh, ch, sh, and r).

These empty rimes are all written as -i in Hanyu Pinyin (hence undistinguishable from true i as in li), and all written as -ih in Tongyong Pinyin. Zhuyin, as a non-Romanization, does not require the representation of any empty rime.

Partial interchangeability of uo and e with o

What is pronounced as a close-mid back unrounded vowel is written usually as -e as in pinyin, but sometimes as -o. This vowel in an isolate syllable is written as o or ê. When placed in a syllable, it is e; except when preceded by k, k', and h, when it is o.

What is actually pronounced as -uo is virtually always written as -o in Wade-Giles, except shuo and the three syllables of kuo, k'uo, and huo, which already have the counterparts of ko, k'o, and ho that represent pinyin ge, ke, and he.

Punctuation

In addition to the apostrophes used for distinguishing the multiple sounds of a single Latin symbol, Wade-Giles uses hyphens to separate all syllables within a word, whereas Pinyin only uses apostrophes to separate ambiguous syllables. Originally in his dictionary, Giles used left apostrophes () consistently. Such orientation was followed in Sinological works until the 1950s or 60s, when it started to be gradually replaced by right apostrophes () in academic literature. On-line publications almost invariably use the plain apostrophe ('). Apostrophes are completely ignored in Taiwanese passports, hence their absence in overseas Chinese names.

If the syllable is not the first in a word, its first letter is not capitalized, even if it is a proper noun. The use of apostrophes, hyphens, and capitalization is frequently not observed in placenames and personal names. For example, the majority of overseas Chinese of Taiwanese origin write their given names like "Tai Lun" or "Tai-Lun", whereas the Wade-Giles actually writes "Tai-lun". The capitalization issue arises partly because ROC passports indiscriminately capitalize all letters of the holder's names (beside the photograph). It is also due to the misunderstanding that the second syllable is a middle name. (See also Chinese name)

Wade-Giles uses superscript numbers to indicate tone, and official Pinyin uses diacritics. The tone marks are ignored except in textbooks.

Comparison with Pinyin

  • Wade-Giles chose the French-like j to represent a Northerner's pronunciation of what now is represented as r in Pinyin.
  • Ü always has a diaresis above, while Pinyin only employs it in the cases of and , while leaving it out in -ue, ju-, qu-, xu-, -uan and yu- as a simplification because u cannot otherwise appear in those positions. Because (as in 玉 "jade") must have a diaresis in Wade, the diaresis-less yu in Wade-Giles is freed up for what corresponds to you (有) in Pinyin.
  • The Pinyin vowel cluster ong is ung in Wade-Giles. (Compare Kung Fu to Gong Fu as an example.)
  • After a consonant, both the Wade-Giles and Pinyin vowel cluster uei is written ui. Furthermore, both Romanizations use iu and un instead of the complete syllables: iou and uen.
  • Single i is never preceded by y, as in pinyin. The only exception is in placenames, which are hyphenless, so without a y, syllable ambiguity could arise.
  • The isolated syllable eh is written as ê, like in Pinyin. (Schwa is occasionally written as ê as well.) But unlike Pinyin, which uses -e if there is a consonant preceding the sound, Wade-Giles uses -eh. (See circumflex)
  • In addition to being the schwa, ê also represents the Pinyin er as êrh.

Comparison chart

Note: In Hanyu Pinyin the so-called 5th accent (neutral accent) is written leaving the syllable with no diacritic mark at all. In Tong-yong Pin-Yin a ring is written over the vowel instead.

Influences

Chinese Postal Map Romanization is based on Wade-Giles, but incorporating a number of exceptions that override the systematic rules.

See also

References

External links

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