Definitions

Vishinsky

Vishinsky

[vi-shin-skee; Russ. vi-shin-skyee]
Vishinsky or Vyshinsky, Andrei Yanuarievich, 1883-1954, Soviet diplomat and jurist. He studied law at the Univ. of Kiev, early entered the Social Democratic party, and fought in the Bolshevik ranks during the civil war (1918-20). Professor of law and later rector at Moscow State Univ., he became deputy state prosecutor (1933) and chief prosecutor (1935) of the USSR. Vishinsky served as Stalin's legal aide in the Communist party purges, and he was chief prosecutor at the Moscow treason trials (1936-38). In 1938 he was appointed vice premier. With the outbreak of World War II, Vishinsky became deputy commissar for foreign affairs (1940-49) and represented the Soviet Union on Allied commissions for the Mediterranean and Italy. He later (1944-45) represented Soviet interests in the Balkans, forcing King Michael of Romania to appoint a pro-Communist as premier by threatening military reprisals. As a major Soviet figure in the United Nations, he acquired a reputation for biting wit as well as for the violence of his attacks on the United States. He was foreign minister of the USSR from 1949 until 1953, when he was succeeded by Molotov and became permanent Soviet delegate to the United Nations. He died in New York City.
Servant of God Fulton John Sheen (born Peter John Sheen May 8, 1895December 9, 1979) was an American archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church. He was Bishop of Rochester, New York and American television's first religious broadcaster of note, hosting Life Is Worth Living in the early 1950s, first on the DuMont Television Network and later on ABC, from 1951 to 1957. He later hosted The Fulton Sheen Program in syndication with a virtually identical format from 1961 to 1968; these later programs, many of which were taped in color, are still frequently rebroadcast today.

Sheen was born in El Paso, Illinois, the oldest of four sons of a farmer. Though he was known as Fulton, his mother's maiden name, he was baptized as Peter John Sheen. As an infant, Sheen contracted tuberculosis. After the family moved to nearby Peoria, Illinois, Sheen's first role in the Roman Catholic Church was as an altar boy at St. Mary's Cathedral.

Education

After earning high school valedictorian honors at Spalding Institute in Peoria in 1913, Sheen was educated at St. Viator College, Bourbonnais, Illinois (later closed; its campus is now home to Olivet Nazarene College).

Sheen attended Saint Paul Seminary in Minnesota before his ordination on September 20, 1919, then followed that with further studies at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C.. His youthful appearance was still evident on one occasion when a local priest who was unable to celebrate Mass asked Sheen to substitute for him.

Sheen earned a doctorate in philosophy at the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium in 1923. While there, he became the first American ever to win the Cardinal Mercier award for the best philosophical treatise.

Sheen then taught theology at St. Edmund's College, Ware in England. In 1926, the Bishop of his hometown in Peoria asked him to take over St. Patrick's Parish. After eight months, Sheen returned to Catholic University in Washington, D.C., to teach philosophy.

Radio and television

A popular instructor, Sheen wrote the first of seventy-three books in 1925, and in 1930 began a weekly Sunday night radio broadcast, The Catholic Hour. Two decades later, the broadcast had a weekly listening audience of four million people. Time magazine referred to him in 1946 as "the golden-voiced Msgr. Fulton J. Sheen, U.S. Catholicism's famed proselytizer" and reported that his radio broadcast received 3,000–6,000 letters weekly from listeners. During the middle of this era, he conducted the first religious service broadcast on the new medium of television, putting in motion a new avenue for his religious pursuits.

Sheen was also credited with helping convert a number of notable figures to the Catholic faith, including writer Heywood Broun, politician Clare Boothe Luce and automaker Henry Ford II.

Sheen was consecrated a bishop on June 11, 1951 . He served as an Auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of New York from 1951 to 1965. In 1951 he also began a weekly television program on the DuMont network, Life is Worth Living. The show, scheduled for Tuesday nights at 8:00 p.m., was not expected to offer much of a challenge against ratings giants Milton Berle and Frank Sinatra, but surprisingly held its own, causing Berle to joke, "He uses old material, too." In 1952, Sheen won an Emmy Award for his efforts, accepting the acknowledgment by saying, "I feel it is time I pay tribute to my four writers—Matthew, Mark, Luke and John."

The program consisted of Sheen simply speaking in front of a live audience, often speaking on the theology of current topics such as the evils of Communism or the usage of psychology, occasionally using a chalkboard. One of his best-remembered presentations came in February 1953, when he forcefully denounced the Soviet regime of Joseph Stalin. Sheen gave a dramatic reading of the burial scene from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, substituting the names of Caesar, Cassius, Mark Antony, and Brutus with those of prominent Soviet leaders: Stalin, Beria, Malenkov, and Vishinsky. He concluded by saying, "Stalin must one day meet his judgment." On March 5, 1953, Stalin died.

The show ran until 1957, drawing as many as 30 million people on a weekly basis. In 1958, he became national director of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith, serving for eight years before being appointed Bishop of Rochester on October 26, 1966. Sheen also hosted a nationally-syndicated series, The Fulton Sheen Program, from 1961 to 1968 (first in black and white and then in color). The format of this series was basically the same as Life is Worth Living.

Later years

While serving in Rochester, he created the Sheen Ecumenical Housing Foundation, which survives to this day. However, his continuing celebrity status led to travels outside the Diocese, preventing him from establishing a close relationship with parishioners. He also spent some of his energy on political activities, such as his denunciation of the Vietnam War in August 1967. On October 15, 1969, one month after celebrating his 50th anniversary as a priest, Sheen resigned from his position and was then appointed Archbishop of the Titular See of Newport (Wales) by Pope Paul VI. The largely ceremonial position allowed Sheen to continue his extensive writing. Archbishop Sheen wrote 73 books and numerous articles and columns.

On October 2, 1979, two months before Sheen's death, Pope John Paul II visited St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York and embraced Sheen, saying, "You have written and spoken well of the Lord Jesus Christ. You are a loyal son of the Church."

Sheen is buried in the crypt of St. Patrick's Cathedral, near the deceased Archbishops of New York. The official repository of Sheen's papers, television programs, and other materials is at St. Bernard's School of Theology and Ministry in Rochester, New York

Posthumous appeal

In 2002, Sheen's Cause for Canonization was officially opened, and so he is now referred to as a Servant of God.

Re-runs of Sheen's various programs continue to be aired on the Eternal Word Television Network, introduced by Joseph Campanella. Re-runs are also aired on the Trinity Broadcasting Network. In addition to his television appearances, Archbishop Sheen can also be heard on Relevant Radio.

On February 2, 2008 the archives of Archbishop Sheen were sealed at a ceremony during a special Mass at the Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Immaculate Conception in Peoria, Illinois. The archive was shipped to Rome where the beatification and subsequent canonization cause of Archbishop Sheen was officially opened on April 15, 2008.

Books by Fulton J. Sheen

Bishop Sheen wrote 73 books, including:

  • God and Intelligence in Modern Philosophy 1925 Longmans, Green and Co.
  • The Seven Last Words (1933, The Century Co.)
  • Philosophy of Science (1934, Bruce Publishing Co.)
  • The Eternal Galilean (1934, Appleton-Century-Crofts)
  • Calvary and the Mass (1936, P. J. Kenedy & Sons)
  • The Cross and the Beatitudes (1937, P. J. Kenedy & Sons)
  • Seven Words of Jesus and Mary (1945, P. J. Kenedy & Sons)
  • Communism and the Conscience of the West (1948, Bobbs-Merrill)
  • Three to Get Married (1951, Appleton-Century-Crofts)
  • Life Is Worth Living Series 1-5 (1953-1957, McGraw-Hill)
  • Way to Happiness (1953, Maco Magazine)
  • Way to Inner Peace (1955, Garden City Books)
  • Life of Christ (1958, McGraw-Hill)
  • Missions and the World Crisis (1963, Bruce Publishing Co.)
  • Footprints in a Darkened Forest (1967, Meredith Press)
  • Lenten and Easter Inspirations (1967, Maco Ecumenical Books)
  • Treasure in Clay: The Autobiography of Fulton J. Sheen (1980, Doubleday & Co.)

References

External links

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