Fiji disease virus (FDV) belongs to the reoviridae family and infects plants. It is one of the few plant viruses in the Reoviridae family. The type species of the genus Fijivirus, it is presently the only known member of Fijivirus group 1.
The virus is between 65-70 nm in diameter. FDV is not enveloped but has a nucleocapsid. The capsid has two layers and is icosohedral. The two known cell surface proteins are A type and B type spikes. The capsid appears round.
As FDV is a reovirus its genome
is also made of dsRNA. The genome is linear and made up of ten segments, consisting of 27000-30500 base pairs. There are at least six structural proteins coded for in the genome. Replication occurs in the host cell cytoplasm
or cytoplasmic viroplasma.
The virus is transmitted by Delphacidae
plant hoppers. The disease is mostly found in Australia because this is the natural habitat of the plant hoppers. It has also been detected in the Philippines. The virus infects the phloem tissues of their Gramineae
hosts. Replication can occur in both the host and vector. The result of infection in plants is the development of tumours.