Glossary of phytopathology

This is a glossary of some of the terms used in phytopathology.

Phytopathology is the study of plant diseases. It is a multi-disciplinary since prerequisites for disease development are the presence of a susceptible host species, a pathogen and the appropriate environmental conditions. This is known as the disease triangle. Because of this interaction, the terminology used in phytopathology often comes from other disciplines including those dealing with the host species ( botany / plant science, plant physiology), the pathogen ( bacteriology, mycology, nematology, virology), the environment and disease management practices (agronomy, soil science, meteorology, environmental science, ecology, plant breeding, pesticides, entomology), and areas of study that apply to both the host and pathogen (molecular biology, genetics, molecular genetics). The result is that most phytopathological glossary include terms from these other disciplines in addition to terms (disease incidence, horizontal resistance, gene-for-gene relationship, blast, scab and so on) that are specific to, or which have a unique meaning in phytopathology. This glossary is no exception. However, for the sake of brevity, it has for the most part, restricted terms from other disciplines to those that pertain to the pathogen. At some point, these terms should be moved to other glossaries (e.g. glossary of mycology, glossary of nematology, and so on).


abioticacceptable daily intakeacervulus (pl. acervuli)
The acervulus is an erumpent, cushionlike fruiting body bearing conidiophores, conidia, and sometimes setae. It is distinguished from a stroma in not having a peridium or covering of fungal tissue of any kind. acid precipitationacid rainacropetalActinomycetes
The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria.acuteacute toxicityaeciosporeaeciumaflatoxinagaraggressivenessair pollutionalkaloidsalleleallelopathyalternate hostalternative hostsalternation of generationsamphidamphigynousamphimixisamphimobileanaerobicanamorph (adj. anamorphic; syn. imperfect state)anastomosis (pl. anastomoses)anthracnoesantibioticantibodyantigenantisepticapothecium
The apothecium is an open, cuplike, or saucer-shaped sexual fungal fruiting body (ascocarp) containing asci. antisepticappressorium (pl. appressoria)arbuscular mycorrhiza (abbr. AM; syn. endomycorrhiza) arbusculeascocarp (syn. ascoma)ascogenousascogonium (pl. ascogonia)ascoma (pl. ascomata; syn. ascocarp)Ascomycetesasciascosporeascostroma (pl. ascostromata) ascus (pl. asci) aseptateasexualasexual reproductionatrophyAUDPC (abbr. for Area Under Disease Progress Curve)autotrophavirulence (avr) geneavirulent (syn. nonpathogenic)axenicautoecious


bacilliformbacterial streamingbactericidebacteriocinbacteriophagebacterium (pl. bacteria)bactericidebasal knob (syn. stylet knob)basidiocarp (syn. basidioma)Basidiomyctes
The Division Basidiomycota is a large taxon within the Kingdom Fungi that includes those species that produce spores in a club-shaped structure called a basidium.basidiosporebasidium (pl. basidia)basidiosporebasidium (pl. basidia; adj. basidial)binary fissionbinucleatebioassaybiocidebiocontrol (syn. biological control)bioticbiotroph (syn. obligate parasite)biotypebitunicateblastingblightblotchbreakingbroadcast applicationbroomingbrown rot (of wood)burnbursa


cankercapsid (syn. coat protein)carcinogencarriercastingcausal agentcertificationcfu (abbr. for colony forming unit)chemotaxis (syn. chemotropism) chemotherapychlamydosporechlamydospore
A chlamydospore is the thick-walled big resting spore of several kinds of fungi.chlorosischronic toxicitychytridiomycetescirculative-propagative transmission (syn. propagative transmission) circulative transmission (syn. persistent transmission) cirruscleistotheciumclamp connectionclavate (or claviform)coalescecoat protein (syn. capsid) coccus (pl. cocci)coelomycetescolonizationcolonycolony forming unit (abbr. cfu)compartmentalizationconidiogenesisconidiogenousconidioma (pl. conidiomata)conidiophoreconidium (pl. conidia) conjugationconkconstitutivecontact fungicide (syn. protectant fungicide)coremium (pl. coremia; syn. synnema)cross-protectioncroziercryptobiosis (hidden life)curlcystcytopathology


damping-offdays to harvestdecaydegree-daydemicyclicdeuteromycetes (syn. Fungi Imperfecti)diagnosticantigendiploid
Diploid (2x) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome, usually one from the mother and one from the father.diapausedieback (v. die back)differential host (syn. differential cultivar)differential mediumdifferentiationdikaryon (adj. dikaryotic)dilution platingdilution streakingdimorphicdirect penetrationDiscomycetesdiseasedisease cycledisease incidencedisease progress curvedisease pyramiddisease severitydisease triangledisinfectdisinfestdispersal (syn. dissemination) dissemination (syn. dispersal)dolipore septumdormancy (adj. dormant)downy mildewdrift (of pesticides)drought durable resistancedwarfing


echinulateeconomic thresholdectomycorrhiza (pl. ectomycorrhizae) ectoparasite ectotrophicelicitorenationencapsidateencystendemicendogenousendophyticendoconidium (pl. endoconidia)endomycorrhiza (pl. endomycorrhizae; syn. arbuscular mycorrhiza) endoparasiteendosporeepidemicepidemiologyepinastyepiphytotic
The epidemic condition of a disease, in a plant population. Compare with enphytoticeradicanteradicationergotergotismerumpentescapeetiolationetiologyexclusionexogenousexudate


f. sp. (abbr. for forma specialis)facultative parasitefacultative saprotrophfasciationfastidiousfilamentous (syn. filiform) flagellumflaggingfleckfocus (pl. foci) forest declineforma specialis (abbr. f.sp.; pl. formae speciales) fructificationfruiting bodyfumigant (v. fumigate)Fungi Imperfecti (syn. Deuteromycetesfungicide (adj. fungicidal)
Chemical designed to kill fungifungus (pl. fungi)fungistat (adj. fungistatic)
Inhibits growth of some fungi.fungistasisfusiform


gallgametangium (pl. gametangia)gametophytegene-for-gene hypothesisgeneral resistance (syn. horizontal resistance, race non-specific resistance)genotypegerm theorygiant cellgirdlegiant cellsgram-negative
Gram-negative bacteria are those that do not retain crystal violet dye in the Gram staining protocol.gram-positive
Gram-positive bacteria are classified as bacteria that retain a crystal violet dye during the Gram stain process.gram staingrowth regulator (syn. hormone) gummosis (pl. gummoses)


haploidhardinesshaustorium (pl. haustoria)
The haustorium is the hyphal tip of a parasitic fungushemiparasitehermaphrodite (adj. hermaphroditic) heteroeciousheterokaryon (adj. heterokaryotic) heterothallicheterotrophholomorphholoparasitehomokaryon (adj. homokaryotic) homothallism (adj. homothallic)horizontal resistance (syn. general resistance, race non-specific resistance)host planthost rangehyalinehymeniumhyperparasitehyperplasiahypertrophyhypersensitivehypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity (hrp) genehypersensitive response (HR) hyphahyphal sheath (syn. mantle)hyphomyceteshyphopodiumhypoplasiahypovirulence


immuneimmunityimperfect fungi (syn. Fungi Imperfecti, deuteromycetes)imperfect state (syn. anamorph)in plantain situin vitroin vivoincubation periodindicator plantindirect penetrationinducedinduced systemic resistance (ISR)infection courtinfection cushioninfection focusinfection peg (syn. penetration peg) infection periodinfectiousinfectiveinfest (n. infestation) initial inoculum (syn. primary inoculum)injuryinoculate (n. inoculation)inoculum (pl. inocula)inoculum densityintegrated pest management (abbr. IPM)intumescence (syn. edema or oedema) IPM (abbr. for integrated pest management) isolate


klendusity The disease-escaping ability of plants.Koch's postulatesknot


latent infectionlatent periodleaf dipleaf spotleafrolllesionlife cyclelignificationlocal lesionlocal necrosislodge


maceratemacroconidium (pl. macroconidia) macrocyclicmacronutrientmantle (syn. hyphal sheath) mating typesmechanical injurymechanical transmissionmedium (pl. media) melaninmicrobialmicroclimatemicroconidium (pl. microconidia) microcyclicmicrofloramicronutrientmicroorganism (syn. microbe)microsclerotium mildewMLO (syn. mycoplasmalike organsim) moldmollicutemonocyclicmonoeciousmonogenicmonogenic resistance (syn. single gene resistance)monotrichousmonoxenic culturemosaicmotilemottlemovement proteinmultigenic resistance (syn. polygenic resistance)multilinemultinucleatemultiparticulate virusmultipartite virusmultiseptatemummificationmummymushroommutagenMycelia steriliamycelium (pl. mycelia)
Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus consisting of a mass of branching, threadlike hyphae that exists below the ground or within another substrate.mycologymycoparasitemycoplasmalike organism (syn. MLO) mycorrhiza (pl. mycorrhizae; adj. mycorrhizal) mycotoxinmycovirusMyxomycetes (syn. slime molds)


necrosis (adj. necrotic) necrotrophneedle cast (of conifers) nematicide
A nematicide is a type of chemical pesticide used to kill parasitic nematodes.nematode
Nematodes are unsegmented, bilaterally symmetric and triploblastic protostomes with a complete digestive system.nitrogen oxidesnoninfectious diseasenonpathogenic (syn. avirulent) nonpersistent transmission (syn. stylet-borne transmission)nonseptate


obligate parasite (syn. biotroph)occlusionoedema (also edema; syn. intumescence) oligogenic resistanceoogonium (pl. oogonia)
An oogonium is a female gametogonium.oomycetes (adj. oomycetous)oosporeoozeostiole (adj. ostiolate)overwinter


pandemicpapillaparagynous parasexualismparasite (adj. parasitic)parasitismparthenogenesis (adj. parthenogenetic)partial resistancepasteurizationpathogen (adj. pathogenic) pathogenesis-related (PR) proteinspathogenicitypathologypathotypepathovar (abbr. pv.) penetrationpenetration peg (syn. infection peg) perfect (see teleomorph)perithecium (pl. perithecia)peritrichatepersistent transmission (syn. circulative transmission) pestpesticidephenological synchronyphenotypephloem necrosisPhycomycetephyllodyphylloplane-competentphysiogenic diseasephytoalexinphytopathogenicphytopathology (syn. plant pathology) phytoplasma (syn. mycoplasmalike organism, MLO) phytosanitary certificatephytotoxicplant pathology (syn. phytopathology) plasmodiophoromycetesplasmodium (pl. plasmodia) polycyclicpolyeticpolygenic resistance (syn. multigenic resistance)polymorphismpolyproteinpowdery mildewpredispose (n. predisposition)primary inoculum (syn. initial inoculum) proinhibitinprokaryotepromycelium (pl. promycelia) propagative transmission (syn. circulative propagative transmission) propaguleprotectantprotectant fungicide (syn. contact fungicide)pseudothecium (pl. pseudothecia)Puccinia pathwaypustulepv. (abbr. for pathovar)pycnidiosporepycnium (pl. pycnia; syn. spermagonium)


qualitative resistancequantitative resistancequarantinequiescentquiescentdormant or inactivequorum sensing


racerace non-specific resistance (syn. general resistance, horizontal resistance)receptive hyphareniformresinosisresistant (n. resistance) rhizomorphrhizosphererhizosphere-competentringspotrosetterotroundwormrugoserussetrust


sanitationsap transmissionsaprobe (syn. saprotroph)saprotroph
A saprotroph (or saprobe) is an organism that obtains its nutrients from non-living organic matter, usually dead and decaying plant or animal matter, by absorbing soluble organic compounds.scabscaldsclerenchyma (adj. sclerenchymatous)sclerotium (pl. sclerotia)
A sclerotium is a compact mass of hardened mycelium (as an ergot) stored with reserve food material that in some higher fungi becomes detached and remains dormant until a favorable opportunity for growth occurs.scorchsecondary infectionsecondary inoculumsecondary metabolitesecondary organismseed treatmentseedborneselective medium septateserratesessileseta (pl. setae)sexual sporesexually compatibleshot-holesignsingle gene resistance (syn. monogenic resistance)slime molds (syn. Myxomycetes)smutsoft rotsoil drenchsoilbornesoil pasteurizationsoil sterilizationsolarizationsooty moldsorus (pl. sori)sp. (abbr. for species; pl. spp.)speciesspecific resistance (syn. vertical resistance)spermagonium (pl. spermagonia; syn. pycnium for rust fungi) spermatium (pl. spermatia; syn. pycniospore for rust fungi)spiculespiroplasma - helical, motile, cell wall-less bacterium; member of genus Spiroplasma in class Mollicutessporangiophoresporangiosporesporangium (pl. sporangia)sporesporidium (pl.sporidia)sporocarpspore-bearing fruiting bodysporodochium (pl.sporodochia)sporogenoussporophoresporophytesporulatespotstabilizing selectionstagheadstem pittingsterigma (pl. sterigmata)sterilantsterile fungussterilization (adj. sterilized)stipplingstrainstreakstriate (n. striations)stroma (pl. stromata)stuntingstylet knob (syn. basal knob)stylet-borne transmission (syn. nonpersistent

transmission)subspeciessubstratesunscald or sunburnsuppressive soilsusceptible (n. susceptibility)symptomsymptomless carriersyncytium (pl. syncytia)synergism (adj. synergistic)synnema (pl. synnemata; syn. coremium)systematicssystemicsystemic acquired resistance (SAR) systemic fungicide


teleomorph (syn. perfect state)teliospore (sometimes called teleutospore, teleutosporodesm)
Teliospore (sometimes called teleutospore) is the thick-walled resting spore of some fungi (rusts and smuts), from which the basidium arises.telium (pl. telia)temporary wiltthallusthermotherapytolerance (adj. tolerant) toxicitytoxintransmit (n. transmission)trap croptransmit (n. transmission)trenching tumor (syn. gall)type


urediniospore (also urediospore, uredospore) uredinium (also uredium; pl. uredinia)


vascular wilt diseasevectorvein bandingvein clearingvermiformvertical resistance (syn. specific resistance)viable (n. viability)virescencevirionviroidviroplasmvirulencevirulentviruliferousvirus-laden, usually applied to insects or nematodes as vectorsvirus
A virus is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the cells of a biological organism.viscin


walling-offwater-soakedwhite rot (of wood)white rustwild typewiltwinterburnwitches' broomwound


XLB (xylem-limited fastidious bacteria)xylem-limited fastidious bacteria (XLB)




A zoospore is a motile asexual spore utilizing a flagellum for locomotion.Zygomyceteszygospore
A zygospore is a sexual part of a fungus, a chlamydospore that is created by the nuclear fusion of haploid hyphae of different mating types.


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