- For the record label, see Vireo Records
are a group of small to medium-sized passerine birds
restricted to the New World
. They are typically dull-plumaged and greenish in color, the smaller species resembling wood warblers
apart from their heavier bills. They range in size from the Choco Vireo
, Dwarf Vireo
and Lesser Greenlet
, all at around 10 centimeters and 8 grams, to the peppershrikes
at up to 17 centimeters and 40 grams (Forshaw & Parkes 1991).
The four genera
of these birds make up the family
Vireonidae, and are believed to be related to the crow-like birds in family Corvidae
and the shrikes in family Laniidae
. Recent biochemical studies have identified two babbler
) which may be Old World
members of this family (Reddy & Cracraft 2007). Observers have commented on the vireo-like behaviour of the Pteruthius
shrike-babblers, but apparently no-one suspected the biogeographically unlikely possibility of vireo relatives in Asia.
The family can be conveniently though perhaps inaccurately categorised by genus as the true vireos, the greenlets, the shrike-vireos and the peppershrikes. Preliminary genetic studies by Johnson et al revealed large interspecific genetic distances between clades within Vireo and Hylophilus of a similar magnitude to differences between Cyclarhis and Vireolanius. Furthermore some vireo and greenlet species may be closer to the peppershrikes than to there respective congeners. A more comprehensive study may reveal this family to be considerably undersplit at both the generic and species level.
All members of the family eat some fruit but mostly insects
and other arthropods
. They take prey from leaves and branches; true vireos also flycatch
, and the Gray Vireo
takes 5 percent of its prey from the ground (Salaman & Barlow 2003).
Range and territorial behavior
Most species are found in Middle America
and northern South America
. Thirteen species of true vireos occur farther north, in the United States
; of these all but Hutton's Vireo
. Members of the family seldom fly long distances except in migration (Salaman & Barlow 2003). They inhabit forest environments, with different species preferring forest canopies, undergrowth, or mangrove
swamps (Forshaw & Parkes 1991).
The resident species occur in pairs or family groups that maintain territories all year (except Hutton's Vireo, which joins mixed feeding flocks). Most of the migrants defend winter territories against conspecifics. The exceptions are the complex comprising the Red-eyed Vireo, the Yellow-green Vireo, the Black-whiskered Vireo, and the Yucatan Vireo, which winter in small wandering flocks (Salaman & Barlow 2003).
Voice and breeding
Males of most species are persistent singers. Songs are usually rather simple, monotonous in some species of the Caribbean littoral and islands, and most elaborate and pleasant to human ears in the Chocó Vireo and the peppershrikes (Salaman & Barlow 2003).
The nests of many tropical species are unknown. Of those that are known, all build a cup-shaped nest that hangs from branches. The female does most of the incubation, spelled by the male except in the Red-eyed Vireo complex (Salaman & Barlow 2003).
- Genus Vireo, the true vireos (the name is Latin for "I am green")
- The "eye-ringed" group.
- Black-capped Vireo, Vireo atricapillus
- Cozumel Vireo, Vireo bairdi
- St. Andrew Vireo, Vireo caribaeus
- Yellow-winged Vireo, Vireo carmioli
- Cassin's Vireo, Vireo cassinii
- Thick-billed Vireo, Vireo crassirostris
- Yellow-throated Vireo, Vireo flavifrons
- White-eyed Vireo, Vireo griseus
- Cuban Vireo, Vireo gundlachii
- Hutton's Vireo, Vireo huttoni
- Puerto Rican Vireo, Vireo latimeri
- Choco Vireo, Vireo masteri
- Jamaican Vireo, Vireo modestus
- Flat-billed Vireo, Vireo nanus
- Dwarf Vireo, Vireo nelsoni
- Blue Mountain Vireo, Vireo osburni
- Mangrove Vireo, Vireo pallens
- Plumbeous Vireo, Vireo plumbeus
- Blue-headed Vireo, Vireo solitarius
- Gray Vireo, Vireo vicinior
- 'The "olivaceous" group.
- 'The "gilvus" group.
- Bell's Vireo - apparently basally positioned in Vireonidae.
- Clade uncertain.
- Genus Hylophilus, the greenlets
- Group A - Generally with simple song and pale iris.
- Group B - Complex song and dark iris.
- Group C - Forest understory species.
- Genus Vireolanius, the shrike-vireos
- Genus Cyclarhis, the peppershrikes
Possible candidates for relocation to this family
- Barker, F. Keith; Cibois, Alice; Schikler, Peter A.; Feinstein, Julie & Cracraft, Joel (2004): Phylogeny and diversification of the largest avian radiation. PNAS 101(30): 11040-11045. PDF fulltext Supporting information
- Collar, N. J. & Robson, C. 2007. Family Timaliidae (Babblers) Pp. 70–291 in; del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Christie, D.A. eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 12. Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
- Forshaw, Joseph & Parkes, Kenneth C. 1991. Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds, p. 209. Merehurst Press, London. ISBN 1-85391-186-0}}
- Johnson, N. K., Zink, R. M., & Marten, J. A. 1988. Genetic evidence for relationships in the avian family Vireonidae. Condor, 90: 428-446.
- Reddy, Sushma & Cracraft, Joel (2007): Old World Shrike-babblers (Pteruthius) belong with New World Vireos (Vireonidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 44 (3): 1352–1357. (HTML abstract)
- Ridgely, R. S., & Tudor, G. 1989. The Birds of South America, vol. 1. Univ. Texas Press, Austin.
- Salaman, Paul & Barlow, Jon C. 2003. Vireos. Pp. 478–479 in; Perrins, C. ed. The Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books, Oxford. ISBN 1-55297-777-3.