violet family

Cronquist system

A system of plant taxonomy, the Cronquist system is a scheme for the classification of flowering plants (or angiosperms). This system was developed by Arthur Cronquist (1919-1992) in his texts An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) and The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1968; 2nd edition, 1988).

Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons) and Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Within these classes, related orders are grouped into subclasses.

The scheme is still widely used, in either the original form or in adapted versions, but many botanists are adopting the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II.

The system as laid out in An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) counts 321 families and 64 orders:

References

Class Magnoliopsida

  1. Subclass Magnoliidae (mostly basal dicots)
    1. Order Magnoliales
      1. Winteraceae
      2. Degeneriaceae
      3. Himantandraceae
      4. Eupomatiaceae
      5. Austrobaileyaceae
      6. Magnoliaceae (magnolia family)
      7. Lactoridaceae
      8. Annonaceae
      9. Myristicaceae
      10. Canellaceae
    2. Order Laurales
      1. Amborellaceae
      2. Trimeniaceae
      3. Monimiaceae
      4. Gomortegaceae
      5. Calycanthaceae
      6. Idiospermaceae
      7. Lauraceae (laurel family)
      8. Hernandiaceae
    3. Order Piperales
      1. Chloranthaceae
      2. Saururaceae
      3. Piperaceae (pepper family)
    4. Order Aristolochiales
      1. Aristolochiaceae
    5. Order Illiciales
      1. Illiciaceae
      2. Schisandraceae
    6. Order Nymphaeales
      1. Nelumbonaceae
      2. Nymphaeaceae
      3. Barclayaceae
      4. Cabombaceae
      5. Ceratophyllaceae
    7. Order Ranunculales
      1. Ranunculaceae
      2. Circaeasteraceae
      3. Berberidaceae
      4. Sargentodoxaceae
      5. Lardizabalaceae
      6. Menispermaceae
      7. Coriariaceae
      8. Sabiaceae
    8. Order Papaverales
      1. Papaveraceae
      2. Fumariaceae

  1. Subclass Hamamelidae [sic: correctly Hamamelididae]
    1. Order Trochodendrales
      1. Tetracentraceae
      2. Trochodendraceae
    2. Order Hamamelidales
      1. Cercidiphyllaceae
      2. Eupteleaceae
      3. Platanaceae
      4. Hamamelidaceae
      5. Myrothamnaceae
    3. Order Daphniphyllales
      1. Daphniphyllaceae
    4. Order Didymelales
      1. Didymelaceae
    5. Order Eucommiales
      1. Eucommiaceae
    6. Order Urticales
      1. Barbeyaceae
      2. Ulmaceae
      3. Cannabaceae
      4. Moraceae
      5. Cecropiaceae
      6. Urticaceae
    7. Order Leitneriales
      1. Leitneriaceae
    8. Order Juglandales
      1. Rhoipteleaceae
      2. Juglandaceae
    9. Order Myricales
      1. Myricaceae
    10. Order Fagales
      1. Balanopaceae
      2. Ticodendraceae
      3. Fagaceae
      4. Nothofagaceae
      5. Betulaceae
    11. Order Casuarinales
      1. Casuarinaceae

  1. Subclass Caryophyllidae
    1. Order Caryophyllales
      1. Phytolaccaceae
      2. Achatocarpaceae
      3. Nyctaginaceae
      4. Aizoaceae
      5. Didiereaceae
      6. Cactaceae (cactus family)
      7. Chenopodiaceae
      8. Amaranthaceae
      9. Portulacaceae
      10. Basellaceae
      11. Molluginaceae
      12. Caryophyllaceae
    2. Order Polygonales
      1. Polygonaceae
    3. Order Plumbaginales
      1. Plumbaginaceae

  1. Subclass Dilleniidae
    1. Order Dilleniales
      1. Dilleniaceae
      2. Paeoniaceae
    2. Order Theales
      1. Ochnaceae
      2. Sphaerosepalaceae
      3. Sarcolaenaceae
      4. Dipterocarpaceae
      5. Caryocaraceae
      6. Theaceae (tea family)
      7. Actinidiaceae
      8. Scytopetalaceae
      9. Pentaphylacaceae
      10. Tetrameristaceae
      11. Pellicieraceae
      12. Oncothecaceae
      13. Marcgraviaceae
      14. Quiinaceae
      15. Elatinaceae
      16. Paracryphiaceae
      17. Medusagynaceae
      18. Clusiaceae
    3. Order Malvales
      1. Elaeocarpaceae
      2. Tiliaceae
      3. Sterculiaceae
      4. Bombacaceae
      5. Malvaceae
    4. Order Lecythidales
      1. Lecythidaceae
    5. Order Nepenthales
      1. Sarraceniaceae
      2. Nepenthaceae
      3. Droseraceae
    6. Order Violales
      1. Flacourtiaceae
      2. Peridiscaceae
      3. Bixaceae
      4. Cistaceae
      5. Huaceae
      6. Lacistemataceae
      7. Scyphostegiaceae
      8. Stachyuraceae
      9. Violaceae (violet family)
      10. Tamaricaceae (tamarind family)
      11. Frankeniaceae
      12. Dioncophyllaceae
      13. Ancistrocladaceae
      14. Turneraceae
      15. Malesherbiaceae
      16. Passifloraceae
      17. Achariaceae
      18. Caricaceae
      19. Fouquieriaceae
      20. Hoplestigmataceae
      21. Cucurbitaceae
      22. Datiscaceae
      23. Begoniaceae
      24. Loasaceae
    7. Order Salicales
      1. Salicaceae
    8. Order Capparales
      1. Tovariaceae
      2. Capparaceae
      3. Brassicaceae
      4. Moringaceae
      5. Resedaceae
    9. Order Batales
      1. Gyrostemonaceae
      2. Bataceae
    10. Order Ericales
      1. Cyrillaceae
      2. Clethraceae
      3. Grubbiaceae
      4. Empetraceae
      5. Epacridaceae
      6. Ericaceae
      7. Pyrolaceae
      8. Monotropaceae
    11. Order Diapensiales
      1. Diapensiaceae
    12. Order Ebenales
      1. Sapotaceae
      2. Ebenaceae
      3. Styracaceae
      4. Lissocarpaceae
      5. Symplocaceae
    13. Order Primulales
      1. Theophrastaceae
      2. Myrsinaceae
      3. Primulaceae

  1. Subclass Rosidae
    1. Order Rosales
      1. Brunelliaceae
      2. Connaraceae
      3. Eucryphiaceae
      4. Cunoniaceae
      5. Davidsoniaceae
      6. Dialypetalanthaceae
      7. Pittosporaceae
      8. Byblidaceae
      9. Hydrangeaceae
      10. Columelliaceae
      11. Grossulariaceae
      12. Greyiaceae
      13. Bruniaceae
      14. Anisophylleaceae
      15. Alseuosmiaceae
      16. Crassulaceae
      17. Cephalotaceae
      18. Saxifragaceae
      19. Rosaceae (rose family)
      20. Neuradaceae
      21. Crossosomataceae
      22. Chrysobalanaceae
      23. Surianaceae
      24. Rhabdodendraceae
    2. Order Fabales
      1. Mimosaceae (mimosa family)
      2. Caesalpiniaceae
      3. Fabaceae
    3. Order Proteales
      1. Elaeagnaceae
      2. Proteaceae
    4. Order Podostemales
      1. Podostemaceae
    5. Order Haloragales
      1. Haloragaceae
      2. Gunneraceae
    6. Order Myrtales
      1. Sonneratiaceae
      2. Lythraceae
      3. Penaeaceae
      4. Crypteroniaceae
      5. Thymelaeaceae
      6. Trapaceae
      7. Myrtaceae
      8. Punicaceae
      9. Onagraceae
      10. Oliniaceae
      11. Melastomataceae
      12. Combretaceae
      13. Alzateaceae
      14. Memecylaceae
      15. Rhyncocalycaceae
    7. Order Rhizophorales
      1. Rhizophoraceae
    8. Order Cornales
      1. Alangiaceae
      2. Nyssaceae
      3. Cornaceae
      4. Garryaceae
    9. Order Santalales
      1. Medusandraceae
      2. Dipentodontaceae
      3. Olacaceae
      4. Opiliaceae
      5. Santalaceae
      6. Misodendraceae
      7. Loranthaceae
      8. Viscaceae
      9. Eremolepidaceae
      10. Balanophoraceae
    10. Order Rafflesiales
      1. Hydnoraceae
      2. Mitrastemonaceae
      3. Rafflesiaceae
    11. Order Celastrales
      1. Geissolomataceae
      2. Celastraceae
      3. Hippocrateaceae
      4. Stackhousiaceae
      5. Salvadoraceae
      6. Aquifoliaceae
      7. Icacinaceae
      8. Aextoxicaceae
      9. Cardiopteridaceae
      10. Corynocarpaceae
      11. Dichapetalaceae
      12. Tepuianthaceae
    12. Order Euphorbiales
      1. Buxaceae
      2. Simmondsiaceae
      3. Pandaceae
      4. Euphorbiaceae
    13. Order Rhamnales
      1. Rhamnaceae
      2. Leeaceae
      3. Vitaceae
    14. Order Linales
      1. Erythroxylaceae
      2. Humiriaceae
      3. Ixonanthaceae
      4. Hugoniaceae
      5. Linaceae
    15. Order Polygalales
      1. Malpighiaceae
      2. Vochysiaceae
      3. Trigoniaceae
      4. Tremandraceae
      5. Polygalaceae
      6. Xanthophyllaceae
      7. Krameriaceae
    16. Order Sapindales
      1. Staphyleaceae
      2. Melianthaceae
      3. Bretschneideraceae
      4. Akaniaceae
      5. Sapindaceae
      6. Hippocastanaceae
      7. Aceraceae
      8. Burseraceae
      9. Anacardiaceae
      10. Julianiaceae
      11. Simaroubaceae
      12. Cneoraceae
      13. Meliaceae
      14. Rutaceae
      15. Zygophyllaceae
    17. Order Geraniales
      1. Oxalidaceae
      2. Geraniaceae
      3. Limnanthaceae
      4. Tropaeolaceae
      5. Balsaminaceae
    18. Order Apiales
      1. Araliaceae
      2. Apiaceae

  1. Subclass Asteridae
    1. Order Gentianales
      1. Loganiaceae
      2. Retziaceae
      3. Gentianaceae
      4. Saccifoliaceae
      5. Apocynaceae
      6. Asclepiadaceae
    2. Order Solanales
      1. Duckeodendraceae
      2. Nolanaceae
      3. Solanaceae
      4. Convolvulaceae
      5. Cuscutaceae
      6. Menyanthaceae
      7. Polemoniaceae
      8. Hydrophyllaceae
      9. Retziaceae
    3. Order Lamiales
      1. Lennoaceae
      2. Boraginaceae
      3. Verbenaceae
      4. Lamiaceae
    4. Order Callitrichales
      1. Hippuridaceae
      2. Callitrichaceae
      3. Hydrostachyaceae
    5. Order Plantaginales
      1. Plantaginaceae
    6. Order Scrophulariales
      1. Buddlejaceae
      2. Oleaceae (olive family)
      3. Scrophulariaceae
      4. Globulariaceae
      5. Myoporaceae
      6. Orobanchaceae
      7. Gesneriaceae
      8. Acanthaceae
      9. Pedaliaceae
      10. Bignoniaceae
      11. Mendonciaceae
      12. Lentibulariaceae
    7. Order Campanulales
      1. Pentaphragmataceae
      2. Sphenocleaceae
      3. Campanulaceae
      4. Stylidiaceae
      5. Donatiaceae
      6. Brunoniaceae
      7. Goodeniaceae
    8. Order Rubiales
      1. Rubiaceae
      2. Theligonaceae
    9. Order Dipsacales
      1. Caprifoliaceae
      2. Adoxaceae
      3. Valerianaceae
      4. Dipsacaceae
    10. Order Calycerales
      1. Calyceraceae
    11. Order Asterales
      1. Asteraceae

Class Liliopsida

  1. Subclass Alismatidae
    1. Order Alismatales
      1. Butomaceae
      2. Limnocharitaceae
      3. Alismataceae
    2. Order Hydrocharitales
      1. Hydrocharitaceae
    3. Order Najadales
      1. Aponogetonaceae
      2. Scheuchzeriaceae
      3. Juncaginaceae
      4. Potamogetonaceae
      5. Ruppiaceae
      6. Najadaceae
      7. Zannichelliaceae
      8. Posidoniaceae
      9. Cymodoceaceae
      10. Zosteraceae
    4. Order Triuridales
      1. Petrosaviaceae
      2. Triuridaceae

  1. Subclass Arecidae
    1. Order Arecales
      1. Arecaceae (palm family)
    2. Order Cyclanthales
      1. Cyclanthaceae
    3. Order Pandanales
      1. Pandanaceae (pandan family)
    4. Order Arales
      1. Acoraceae
      2. Araceae
      3. Lemnaceae

  1. Subclass Commelinidae
    1. Order Commelinales
      1. Rapateaceae
      2. Xyridaceae
      3. Mayacaceae
      4. Commelinaceae
    2. Order Eriocaulales
      1. Eriocaulaceae
    3. Order Restionales
      1. Flagellariaceae
      2. Joinvilleaceae
      3. Restionaceae
      4. Centrolepidaceae
    4. Order Juncales
      1. Juncaceae
      2. Thurniaceae
    5. Order Cyperales
      1. Cyperaceae
      2. Poaceae (Grass family)
    6. Order Hydatellales
      1. Hydatellaceae
    7. Order Typhales
      1. Sparganiaceae
      2. Typhaceae

  1. Subclass Zingiberidae
    1. Order Bromeliales
      1. Bromeliaceae
    2. Order Zingiberales
      1. Strelitziaceae
      2. Heliconiaceae
      3. Musaceae
      4. Lowiaceae
      5. Zingiberaceae (Ginger family)
      6. Costaceae
      7. Cannaceae
      8. Marantaceae

  1. Subclass Liliidae
    1. Order Liliales
      1. Philydraceae
      2. Pontederiaceae
      3. Haemodoraceae
      4. Cyanastraceae
      5. Liliaceae (Lily family)
      6. Iridaceae (Iris family)
      7. Velloziaceae
      8. Aloeaceae (Aloe family)
      9. Agavaceae
      10. Xanthorrhoeaceae
      11. Hanguanaceae
      12. Taccaceae
      13. Stemonaceae
      14. Smilacaceae
      15. Dioscoreaceae
    2. Order Orchidales
      1. Geosiridaceae
      2. Burmanniaceae
      3. Corsiaceae
      4. Orchidaceae (Orchid family)

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