[vik-tawr-ee-uh, -tohr-; for 3 also Sp. beek-taw-ryah]
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria), 1819-1901, queen of Great Britain and Ireland (1837-1901) and empress of India (1876-1901). She was the daughter of Edward, duke of Kent (fourth son of George III), and Princess Mary Louise Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.

Early Reign

Victoria's father died before she was a year old. Upon the death (1830) of George IV, she was recognized as heir to the British throne, and in 1837, at the age of 18, she succeeded her uncle, William IV, to the throne. With the accession of a woman, the connection between the English and Hanoverian thrones ceased in accordance with the Salic law of Hanover. One of the young queen's advisers was Baron Stockmar, sent by her uncle, King Leopold I of the Belgians.

Her first prime minister, Viscount Melbourne, became her close friend and adviser. In 1839, when Melbourne's Whig cabinet resigned, Victoria refused to dismiss her Whig ladies of the bedchamber, the accepted gesture of confidence in the incoming party. The Tory leader, Sir Robert Peel, declined to form a cabinet, and Melbourne remained in office.

Marriage to Albert

In 1840, Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Albert, with whom she was very much in love, became the dominant influence in her life. Her first child, Victoria, later empress of Germany, was born in 1840, and the prince of Wales, later Edward VII, in 1841. Victoria had nine children. Their marriages and those of her grandchildren allied the British royal house with those of Russia, Germany, Greece, Denmark, Romania, and several of the German states.

Through Albert's efforts, Victoria was reconciled with the Tories, and she became very fond of Peel during his second ministry (1841-46). She was less happy with the Whig ministry that followed, taking particular exception to the adventurous foreign policy of Viscount Palmerston. The resulting friction was a factor in Palmerston's dismissal from office in 1851. The queen and Albert also influenced the formation of Lord Aberdeen's coalition government in 1852. Royal popularity was increased by the success of the Crystal Palace exposition (1851), planned and carried through by Albert.

It began to wane again, however, when it was rumored on the eve of the Crimean War that the royal couple was pro-Russian. After the outbreak (1854) of the war, Victoria took part in the organization of relief for the wounded and instituted the Victoria Cross for bravery. She also reconciled herself to Palmerston, who became prime minister in 1855 and proved a vigorous war leader.

Widowhood and Later Years

In 1861, Albert (who had been named prince consort in 1857) died. Victoria's grief was so great that she did not appear in public for three years and did not open Parliament until 1866; her prolonged seclusion damaged her popularity. Her reappearance was largely the work of Benjamin Disraeli, who, together with William Gladstone, dominated the politics of the latter part of Victoria's reign.

Disraeli, adroit in his personal relations with Victoria, became the queen's great favorite. In 1876 he secured for her the title empress of India, which pleased her greatly; she was ardently imperialistic and intensely interested in the welfare of her colonial subjects, particularly the Indians. Victoria's relations with Gladstone, on the other hand, were very stiff; she disliked him personally and disapproved of many of his policies, especially Irish Home Rule.

In her old age, Victoria was enormously popular. Jubilees were held in 1887 and 1897 to celebrate the 50th and 60th years of the longest English reign. The queen was not highly intelligent, but her conscientiousness and strict morals helped to restore the prestige of the crown and to establish it as a symbol of public service and imperial unity.


See her letters (9 vol., 1907-30); The Girlhood of Queen Victoria (extracts from her journal, ed. by Lord Esher, 1912); biographies by L. Strachey (1921, repr. 1960), S. Weintraub (1987), and D. Thompson (1990); C. Hibbert, Queen Victoria: A Personal History (2001); G. Gill, We Two, Victoria and Albert: Rulers, Partners, Rivals (2009).

Victoria (Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa), 1840-1901, empress of Germany, daughter of Victoria of England. In 1858 she married the German crown prince (later Emperor Frederick III). After her husband's death in 1888, she was generally known as Empress Frederick. An English liberal, she was bitterly hostile to the imperial chancellor Otto von Bismarck but was unable to make her dislike effective. Her letters were published in English in 1928.

See biographies by R. Barkeley (1956) and H. Pakula (1995).

Victoria, Guadalupe: see Guadalupe Victoria.
Victoria, Tomás Luis de, c.1548-1611, Spanish composer. He went to Rome in 1565 to study for the priesthood at the German Jesuit College. In 1571 he became music master of the Collegium Romanum, succeeding Palestrina, who may have been his teacher. Mutual influence is evident in their works. In 1578, Victoria gave up the position he had held since 1573 as music master at the Collegium Germanicum to become a resident priest at the Church of San Girolamo. All of Victoria's known compositions are religious. His first book of motets (1572) contains the well-known O quam gloriosum and O vos omnes. He also composed masses, canticles, settings of all the hymns for the church year (1581), and two settings of the biblical accounts of the Passion. His polyphonic technique, equal to any in the Renaissance, expresses a passionate mysticism that is essentially Spanish. In 1587 he returned to Spain to be chaplain and choirmaster to Empress Mary (wife of Emperor Maximilian II), in whose memory he composed his last and greatest work, Officium defunctorum (pub. 1605).
Victoria, state (1991 pop. 3,770,684), 87,884 sq mi (227,620 sq km), SE Australia. It is bounded on the S and E by the Indian Ocean, Bass Strait, and the Tasman Sea. Melbourne is the capital. Other important cities are Geelong, Ballarat, and Bendigo. Australia's second smallest state, Victoria is the most densely populated. The Australian Alps and other mountains of the Eastern Highlands traverse it; the highest point is Mt. Bogong (6,508 ft/1,984 m). The climate is generally temperate and pleasant. The large, but frequently dry, rivers such as the Campaspe and the Mitta Mitta are important for irrigation; a large portion of the irrigated land in Australia is in Victoria. Hume Reservoir, on the New South Wales border, irrigates an extensive agricultural and pastoral area in the north. Despite its size, Victoria is one of Australia's leading agricultural states. Wheat, grown largely in the northeast, is the most important crop, followed by oats, barley, fruits, and vegetables. Livestock and dairying are also important. Sheep are raised in the southwest and dairy cattle in the south. Victoria was the first state in Australia to develop industry. Major industries include automobile manufacturing, textiles, clothing, food processing, and service industries. Gold mining has declined sharply; however, the mining of brown coal, mainly in the Latrobe Valley E of Melbourne, has increased dramatically. Until the introduction of tariff reforms in the 1980s, much of the labor force worked in retail and wholesale trade. Unsuccessful attempts at settlement were made in 1803 and 1826 on the site of the present Melbourne. Settlement began in the 1830s when sheep ranchers from Tasmania came looking for pasture. Known as the Port Phillip District, the area that is now Victoria became part of the colony of New South Wales in 1836. In 1851, Victoria was made a separate British colony, which was granted full constitutional self-government in 1855. The discovery of gold in 1851 led to a rapid population increase. Victoria was federated as a state of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. Executive power rests nominally in the governor, who is appointed by the crown on advice of the cabinet. The premier and the cabinet are responsible to the bicameral state parliament.
Victoria, city (1991 pop. 71,228), capital of British Columbia, SW Canada, on Vancouver Island and Juan de Fuca Strait. It is the largest city on the island and its major port and business center. In addition to its importance as the seat of provincial government, Victoria is noted as a residential city because of its mild climate, beautiful scenery, many parks (including Beacon Hill Park) and drives. It is also a popular center for American and Canadian tourists. It has sawmills and woodworking plants, fish-processing factories, grain elevators, and cold-storage plants. The city is the base of a deep-sea fishing fleet; a large naval installation is nearby. Founded (1843) as Fort Camosun, a Hudson's Bay Company post, the city was later called Fort Victoria. When Vancouver Island became a crown colony, a town was laid out on the site (1851-52), named Victoria, and made the capital of the colony. With the discovery (1858) of gold on the British Columbia mainland, Victoria became the port, supply base, and outfitting center for miners on their way to the Cariboo gold fields. In 1866, when the island was administratively united with the mainland, Victoria remained the capital of the colony and became the provincial capital in 1871. It is the seat of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the Univ. of Victoria.
Victoria, city (2001 est. pop. 1,035,000), capital of China's special administrative region of Hong Kong. The city, commonly known as Hong Kong, is on the NW shore of Hong Kong island, at the foot of Victoria Peak. A busy world seaport with extensive shipbuilding yards, it has a fine natural deepwater harbor, across from which lies Kowloon. Densely populated, Victoria is Hong Kong's main administrative, economic, and cultural center, and is the site of many corporate headquarters and international banking facilities. Tourism is also economically important. The Univ. of Hong Kong (1911) is there. Victoria was founded by the British in 1843.
Victoria, Mexico see: Ciudad Victoria.
Victoria or Port Victoria, town (1987 pop. 24,325), capital of the Seychelles, in the Indian Ocean. A port on the NE coast of Mahé Island, Victoria is an administrative, commercial, tourist, and shipping center. Copra, essential oils and spices, and fish products are exported. Victoria has a botanic garden and a polytechnic institute; Seychelles International airport is to the southeast.
Victoria, city (1990 pop. 55,076), seat of Victoria co., S Tex., on the Guadalupe River, in a prosperous farm, cattle, and oil area. The Victoria Barge Canal (completed in 1962) connects the city with the Intracoastal Waterway. Victoria has factories manufacturing storage tanks, plastics, steel, polyethylene, and oil-drilling and -rig equipment. It is the seat of the Univ. of Houston at Victoria. A zoo and museums of history and fine arts are also in the city. To the south are the Padre Island National Seashore and a national wildlife refuge.
Victoria, Lake, or Victoria Nyanza, largest lake of Africa and the world's second largest freshwater lake, c.26,830 sq mi (69,490 sq km), E central Africa, on the Uganda-Tanzania-Kenya border. Lake Victoria (c.255 mi/410 km long and c.155 mi/250 km wide) occupies a shallow depression (c.250 ft/75 m deep) on the Equatorial Plateau (alt. 3,725 ft/1,135 m) between two arms of the Great Rift Valley. It has an irregular shoreline and many small islands. Numerous streams, including the Kagera River, feed Lake Victoria, which is one of the chief headwater reservoirs of the Nile; the Victoria Nile drains the lake to the north. At the Nalubaale (Owen Falls) and Kiira dams on the Victoria Nile the lake's waters are used to generate hydroelectricity. The lake basin is densely populated and intensely cultivated, and the lake is an important fishery, but fish stocks and diversity have declined since the 1980s as a result of overfishing and the introduction of the Nile perch. Control of the Migingo islands and the surrounding fishing grounds has been a contentious issue between Uganda and Kenya in recent years. The lake has also suffered uncontrolled water hyacinth proliferation. Ships regularly call at lakeside towns, including Entebbe, Mwanza, Bukoba, and Kisumu. The first European to see Lake Victoria (originally called Ukerewe) was John Speke, the British explorer, in 1858; Henry Stanley explored the region in 1875.
de los Angeles, Victoria, 1923-2005, Spanish soprano, b. Barcelona. After a concert debut in Madrid in 1944, de los Angeles toured Scandinavia, France, England, and South America. Her debut in the United States was made at Carnegie Hall in 1950, and she joined the Metropolitan Opera Company the same year, performing there until 1961. After that she toured extensively, singing in most of the world's major opera houses. Her voice was praised for its lyricism and elegant expressiveness, and her performances of Catalan folk-song were especially notable.

Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden, Duchess of Västergötland (Kronprinsessan Victoria, Sveriges kronprinsessa, hertiginna av Västergötland, Victoria Ingrid Alice Désirée; born 14 July 1977) is the heiress apparent to the Swedish throne. If she ascends to the throne as expected she will be Sweden's third queen regnant (after Queen Christina and Queen Ulrika Eleonora).

Family background

She is the eldest child of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia, and belongs to the Royal House of Bernadotte. She is the only female heir-apparent in the world currently (though there are several females who are heiresses-apparent of an heir-apparent) and is usually styled HRH The Crown Princess. She is currently 192nd in the Line of Succession to the British Throne through her father, who is a great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, thus making him (along with the Queen of Denmark and the King of Spain) a second cousin of Queen Elizabeth II.

Her given names honor various relatives. Her first name comes primarily from her great-great-grandmother Victoria of Baden, the queen-consort of Sweden as wife of King Gustaf V (but the same name also glorifies her twice-over great-great-great-grandmother Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom). Her other names honor her great-aunt Queen Ingrid of Denmark; her maternal grandmother, the Brazilian Alice Sommerlath (née de Toledo), her ancestor Désirée Clary, the queen-consort of Charles XIV John and a former fiancée of Napoleon Bonaparte.

She was christened at The Royal Palace Church on 27 September 1977. Her godparents are King Harald V of Norway, Ralf Sommerlath, Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, and her aunt, Princess Désirée, Baroness Silfverschiöld.

The Crown Princess is also godmother to a number of royal children, most of them future heirs including Princess Ingrid Alexandra of Norway, Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands, Prince Christian of Denmark and Princess Eléonore of Belgium.


Victoria attended a state elementary school and a private gymnasium (secondary school) in Stockholm, graduating in 1996. Afterward, she studied for a year (1996/97) at Université Catholique de l'Ouest at Angers in France and in the fall of 1997 Victoria followed a special program following the work of the Riksdag (the Swedish Parliament). During the years 1998-2000 the Crown Princess resided in the USA where she studied various subjects at Yale University in Connecticut.

In June and September 2002 Victoria interned at the United Nations in New York and in May 1999 at the Swedish Embassy in Washington D.C. In the autumn of 2000 the she studied conflict resolution and international peacekeeping at the Swedish National Defence College and in 2001 Victoria followed the Swedish presidency of the EU and completed a study program at the Government Offices (Rosenbad).

During the spring of 2002 Victoria completed a study program with the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) and that fall she interned at the Swedish Trace Council's offices in Berlin and Paris. In 2003 the Crown Princess' education continued with visits to Swedish businesses, a study and intern program in agriculture and forestry, as well as completing the basic soldier training at SWEDINT (the Swedish Armed Forces International Centre).

In 2004 Victoria continued with visits to Swedish businesses, and that fall she continued with courses in political science, international relations and conflict resolution at the Swedish National Defence College. In 2005 she continued with private tutored studies in society related subjects as well as some courses at the Stockholm University.

In the fall of 2006 Victoria enrolled in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs' Diplomat Program, running from September 2006 to June 2007. The program is a training program for young future diplomats and gives an insight to the ministry's work, Swedish foreign and security politics and Sweden's relations with the rest of the world. The education entails lectures, seminars, group work and visits to authorities and institutions.

During the autumn 2007 Victoria will study French privately as well as undergo an internship at the Permanent Representation of Sweden to the European Union.

Change in status

She was created Crown Princess and heir apparent on 1 January 1980, by the change made in 1979 to the Act of Succession of 1810 (Successionsordningen). This constitutional reform meant that the throne would be inherited by the monarch's eldest child without regard to gender. Sweden was the first country to adopt absolute primogeniture. This not only made Victoria the first heiress apparent to the Swedish throne, but it also made her the first female in the line of succession. The retroactive constitutional change was apparently not supported by the King, who favored his son as heir-apparent because he was born as such, a view that has been commented in the media.

When she became heiress, she also was made titular duchess of Västergötland, which is one of the historical provinces of Sweden.

Prior to this constitutional change, the heir to the throne was her younger brother, the then-Crown Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland. He is now second in line to the throne. She also has a younger sister, Princess Madeleine, Duchess of Hälsingland and Gästrikland.

Royal duties

As heir apparent to the throne, the Crown Princess is a working member of the Swedish Royal Family with her own agenda of official engagements and she holds a significant supportive role to her father. Victoria attends the regular Advisory Council on Foreign Affairs and the information councils with Government ministers headed by the King and steps in as a temporary regent (Riksföreståndare) when it is needed. Victoria also takes part in the regular official dinners hosted by King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia, state visits to Sweden, high level and official visits from foreign dignitaries, the opening of the Riksdag (Parliament), celebrations of the Swedish National Day and the annual Nobel festivities.

The declaration of the Crown Princess's majority (coming of age) took place at a ceremony in the Hall of State at the Royal Palace of Stockholm on 14 July 1995, when she delivered her first speech to the Riksdag (Parliament).

The Crown Princess has made many official trips abroad as a representative of Sweden. Her first major, official visit on her own was to Japan in the autumn of 2001, where she promoted Swedish tourism, design, music, environmental sustainability and gastronomy during the "Swedish Style" event. That same year, Victoria also travelled to the west coast of the United States were she participated in the celebrations of the Nobel centenary.

In 2002 she paid official visits to Kosovo where she visited Camp Victoria, the United States, Spain, Uganda and Ethiopia. In 2003 she made official visits to Egypt and the United States. In the beginning of 2004, she paid an official visit to Saudi Arabia, as a part of a large official business delegation from Sweden, and in October 2004 she travelled to Hungary.

In January 2005 Victoria made a long official visit to Australia, promoting Swedish Style and businesses, and in April she visited Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to follow aid work and get informed about the work in the aftermath of the tsunami. In April 2005 the Crown Princess made an official visit to Japan where she visited the Expo 2005 in Aichi, laid the foundation for a new IKEA store in [Yokohama] together with Princess Takamado and met with Emperor Akihito, Empress Michiko, Crown Prince Naruhito and Sayako Kuroda. In June 2005 Victoria travelled to Turkey on an official visit where she participated in the Swedish Business Seminar and Sweden Day celebrations in Ankara during a historic visit which was organised by the Swedish Embassy in Ankara and Swedish Trade Council in Istanbul. Victoria also visited the historic sights such as the Blue Mosque, Topkapi Palace, and Hagia Sophia. This was the first official Royal visit from Sweden to Turkey since 1934. In September 2005 the Crown Princess made an official visit to China.

In March 2006 Victoria made an official visit to Brazil where she followed the Volvo Ocean Race and visited projects supported by the World Childhood Foundation, such as the Abrigo Rainha Sílvia. In December that same the Crown Princess paid a four-day official visit to Paris where she attended a French-Swedish Soirée arranged by the Swedish Chamber of Commerce, The Swedish Trade Council and the Embassy of Sweden, during which she also awarded the Prix d’Excellence 2006. The visit to Paris also included events with the Swedish Club in Paris, attendance at a church service in the Sofia Church (the Swedich church in Paris), a study visit to the OECD headquarters and meetings with the Secretary-General José Ángel Gurría, the Swedish Ambassador to the OECD, Gun-Britt Andersson, and other senior officials. She also attended a gala dinner hosted by La Fondation Pour L’Enfance at Versailles.

Victoria has traveled extensively as representative for Sweden during her life. Some of the countries she has visited include Egypt, China, Brazil, Australia, Uganda, Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Japan, Kosovo, Luxembourg, Spain, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Italy.

The Crown Princess Victoria Fund

The Crown Princess Victoria Fund was set up in 1997 and is run as a part of Radiohjälpen, the fundraising branch of Sveriges Television and Sveriges Radio. The fund’s aim is to provide support for leisure- and recreational activities for children and young people with functional disabilities or chronic illnesses. Applications can be addressed to the fund year round and the use of grants can cover everything from compensations to assistants at recreational trips to leisure activities such as horseback riding, skiing, wheelchair floorball, camps and outings.

Every summer Sveriges Television carries out fundraising drives for the fund via messages on television, these are especially concentrated around the Swedish national day on 6 June and the Crown Princess’ birthday, Victoriadagen, on 14 July. On the Crown Princess birthday, when a long televised entertainment program is aired from Borgholm where the people and the Royal Family celebrate Victoria, the public is also able to call in and donate money at the same time as they compete for prizes.

The Crown Princess Victoria Fund’s means mainly derive from donations by the public, but large companies such as Arla Foods, Swedbank and AB Svenska Returpack are constant sponsor partners. Additional support comes from The Association of Swedish Bakers & Confectioners who every year arrange a national “princess cake week” during which the participating cafés and bakeries give 2,50 SEK per sold princess pastry and 10 SEK per sold princess cake to the fund. The result of this fundraising drive is usually presented to Victoria herself on her name day on 12 March every year; in 2007 the total amount was 200,000 SEK. Congratulatory and memorial cards are also issued by Radiohjälpen benefitting the fund, a simple way to pay respects and do a good deed in one act. In 2006 The Crown Princess Victoria Fund raised a total of 5,5 million SEK.

Every year Victoria visits one or several clubs or projects that have been granted money. These visits are not announced via the official royal diary but kept private, instead Sveriges Television often accompanies her and airs short programs from these visits at some time during the year.

Love life

Though the Crown Princess has long refused to discuss her private life, she has frequently been the object of press speculation regarding purported romances. Only two persons have been confirmed and obvious boyfriends to Victoria, both for a considerable amount of time.

Victoria’s first serious boyfriend was Daniel Collert, they socialized in the same circles, went to the same school and were good friends when their romance developed in the mid-1990’s. When the Crown Princess moved to the United States in 1998 to study and recover from her eating disorders, Daniel Collert moved with her across the Atlantic and settled in New York. In September 2000, Victoria’s and Daniel Collert’s relationship was confirmed by her during an interview at the Expo 2000 and later by Court Marshal Elisabeth Tarras-Wahlberg (then Director of the Press and Information Department at the Royal Court). They broke up in 2001.

In May 2002 Swedish newspaper Expressen reported that Victoria had a new boyfriend, her personal trainer from Master Training, Daniel Westling. Immediately after the news broke and the media turned their attention at him, it was obvious that he did not like the attention. At one time Westling was even photographed crossing a street at a red light in order to avoid the camera. In July 2002 Victoria and Daniel Westling were pictured kissing for the first time; it was at the birthday party of Caroline Kreuger, a close friend of Victoria.

In a popular personal report called Tre dagar med Victoria (Three days with Victoria), following her work during three days, which aired on TV4 in December 2004, the Crown Princess commented that much of the criticism directed at Westling is unfair. “Many unfair things are written. I understand that there are speculations, but one day justice will be done there too”, she said. Victoria also underlined that happiness is important, these days it is not so much about background and pedigree but rather two people who have to live with each other. She said that if one isn’t happy and comfortable with each other, it is impossible to do a good job.

During her April 2005 visit to the Expo 2005 in Nagakute, the Crown Princess was interviewed by Mikio Yikuma, a reporter with the Japanese newspaper Yomiuri Shimbun. Yikuma brought up the subject of royals marrying commoners, to which the princess responded, "I think the general idea of Swedes is that it's the modern way to marry someone that you love, not necessarily where she or he comes from". Though she did not mention Westling by name, the Crown Princess did admit, "There is someone in my life" but that marriage was not on her mind. The interview was conducted at the Swedish embassy in Tokyo and published in Yomiuri Shimbun on April 18, 2005.

Swedish media have constantly speculated about upcoming engagements and marriages for all of the years her relationships have been known.


In 1996 it was established that the Crown Princess suffered from anorexia, it was however not confirmed until the next year. Already at that time she was getting professional help but given her public position in Sweden it was getting increasingly harder to handle the situation. Victoria had planned to study at Uppsala University but intense media speculations and much public discussion after pictures of evidently too slim Victoria in sleeveless dresses at the Order of the Innocence’s ball and the gala dinner for the incoming state visit from Austria in April 1997, the Royal Court decided to confirm what was feared.

After a press release from the Royal Court announced that the Crown Princess had eating disorders in November 1997, plans changed for her and Victoria moved to the United States where she received professional help and studied at Yale University. By making this drastic decision Victoria could live an anonymous life while getting professional help and recovering, not having to worry about media speculations or if people were recognizing her on the streets.

In an interview with Björn Carlgren for SVT2 in June 1999 the Crown Princess said: “It was a really hard time. This kind of illness is hard, not only for the individual but for the surroundings. Today I’m fine”.

In November 2002 the book “Victoria, Victoria!” came out, speaking further about her eating disorder. Victoria said: “I felt like an accelerating train, going right down… during the whole period. I had eating disorders and was aware of it, my anguish was enormous. I really hated how I looked like, how I was… I, Victoria, didn’t exist. It felt like everything in my life and around me was controlled by others. The one thing I could control was the food I put in me”. She further said that “What happened cost and I was the one who stood for the payments. Now I’m feeling well and with the insights I’ve acquired through this I can hopefully help someone else”.



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