Victor

Victor

[vik-ter]
Vasarely, Victor, 1908-97, French artist, one of the originators of op art, b. Pécs, Hungary. Educated at art institutes in Budapest, Vasarely was profoundly impacted by Bauhaus thought. He settled (1930) in Paris, where he worked as a commercial artist and graphic designer and later (1959) became a French citizen. Influenced by such modernist movements as constructivism, cubism, and surrealism, by the 1930s he had begun working with the elements of geometric abstraction. In the post-World War II years Vasarely worked out a new pictorial and spatial language, at first in black and white and soon in color. Exploiting optical illusions, he juxtaposed colors so that they appeared to vibrate, meanwhile developing a technique that made parts of his geometric images seem to bulge forward from their surface ground. Vasarely's paintings and graphic art reached the peak of their popularity and influence in the 1960s and 70s.
Grignard, Victor, 1871-1935, French chemist. He shared the 1912 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Paul Sabatier for his work in organic synthesis based on his discovery (1900) of the Grignard reagent. He taught at the Univ. of Nancy (1909-19) and at the Univ. of Lyons (from 1919).
Gruen, Victor, 1903-80, American architect, often called the inventor of the modern shopping mall, b. Vienna as Viktor David Grünbaum. In Vienna, he studied at the Technological Institute and Academy of Fine Arts, worked for Peter Behrens, and opened (1933) his own architectural firm. He fled Nazi Germany's annexation of Austria, moving (1938) to the United States and becoming a citizen (1943). His innovative design for the Lederer leather-goods shop (1939) on New York's Fifth Avenue was the first of several early retail projects. In 1951 he founded Victor Gruen Associates, bringing together an outstanding group of architects, engineers, and planners. The firm proved to be a major force in the design of renovated center cities and in the creation of the large shopping malls that came to dominate suburban commerce and entertainment. As an urban planner, Gruen was instrumental in formulating master plans for such cities as Fort Worth, Tex. (1955), Kalamazoo, Mich. (1958), Cincinnati, Ohio (1963), Fresno, Calif. (1965), and Tehran (1963-67). Among his most notable shopping-complex projects are the Northland Center (1954) in suburban Detroit; the Southdale Center (1956) in Edina, Minn., outside Minneapolis, America's first enclosed mall; the Cherry Hill Mall (1961), in the New Jersey suburbs of Philadelphia; and Midtown Plaza (1962), Rochester, N.Y.

See his Shopping Towns USA: The Planning of Shopping Centers (with L. Smith, 1960), Heart of Our Cities: Dianosis and Cure (1964), and Centers for the Urban Environment: Survival of the Cities (1973); biography by M. J. Hardwick (2004).

Paz Estenssoro, Victor, 1907-2001, president of Bolivia (1952-56, 1960-64, 1985-89). An attorney and economist born into a land-owning family, he was a founder (1941) of the moderate leftist National Revolutionary Movement (MNR). He helped lead the revolt that brought the party into power in 1943, but he was forced to flee to Argentina in 1946. While in exile he was elected (1951) president of Bolivia. The army annulled the election, provoking a bloody but successful MNR revolt (Apr., 1952), which gave Paz the presidency.

Upon taking office, Paz immediately launched a program of revolutionary measures. He expropriated the largest tin mines and improved the lot of the Bolivians of indigenous descent by granting them suffrage and instituting land, educational, and welfare reforms. Prohibited a second consecutive term by the constitution, he was succeeded (1956) by his vice president, Hernán Siles Zuazo.

Paz was reelected president in 1960, at which time he was faced with a deteriorating economy and a growing rift within the MNR. He aroused considerable opposition by amending the constitution to permit his reelection in 1964, and although he was reelected, both the right and the left factions bolted his party. In Nov., 1964, Paz was ousted by a military coup. He later settled in Peru, returning to Bolivia in 1971. At the age of 77 he was again elected (1985) president. In his last term he instituted a sweeping conservative austerity program, reducing the government's role in the economy and controlling inflation, but with enormous social costs.

Schoelcher, Victor, 1804-93, French humanitarian and statesman. Long involved in the abolition movement, he presided (1848) over a commission that secured the abolition of slavery in French territory. He opposed the coup of Louis Napoleon (later Napoleon III) of Dec., 1851, and was forced into exile in England until Napoleon's fall in 1870. Elected to the national assembly, he sat with the extreme left. He became senator for life in 1875.
Horta, Victor, Baron, 1861-1947, Belgian architect. The Tassel House in Brussels (1892-93), his first mature work, was the earliest monument of art nouveau. It was excelled only by his later works, such as the Baron von Eetvelde house (1895) and the demolished Maison du Peuple (1896-99), both in Brussels. The houses are especially significant for their interior architecture. The irregularly shaped rooms open freely onto one another at different levels. The plantlike design of the iron balustrade is echoed in the curving decorative lines of the mosaic floors, plaster walls, and other surfaces. Horta later reverted to a more traditional mode of architectural expression.
Cousin, Victor, 1792-1867, French educational leader and philosopher, founder of the eclectic school. He lectured at the Sorbonne from 1814 until 1821, when political reaction forced him to leave. Recalled to teaching in 1828, Cousin was named in 1830 to the council of public instruction and was made councillor of state. In 1832 he became a peer of France, and in 1840 he accepted the position of minister of public instruction. He became virtually the national arbiter of educational and philosophical matters. His chief works in education were the complete reorganization and centralization of the primary system and the establishment of a policy of philosophical freedom in the universities. As an eclectic, Cousin sought to develop a system that combined the psychological insights of Maine de Biran, the common sense of the Scottish school, and the idealism of Hegel and Schelling. He argued that each of these philosophies contains an element of truth that can be grasped by intuition. Cousin's approach to philosophy was historical, and he introduced the study of the history of philosophy into the French academic course. His works include Fragments philosophiques (1826), Du vrai, du beau et du bien (1836; tr. Lectures on the True, the Beautiful, and the Good, 1854), Cours de l'histoire de la philosophie (8 vol., 1815-29), various studies of educational systems, and a brilliant translation of Plato.

See G. Boas, French Philosophies of the Romantic Period (1925); W. V. Brewer, Victor Cousin as a Comparative Educator (1971).

Duruy, Victor, 1811-94, French historian. He was a professor at Reims and Paris, and as minister of public instruction (1863-69) under Napoleon III he encouraged the adoption of the principle of free obligatory elementary education. His best-known work is his Histoire des Romans (7 vol., 1870-85; tr., 8 vol., 1883), but he also wrote other popular histories, notably of Greece and France. He was elected to the French Academy in 1884.
Herbert, Victor, 1859-1924, Irish-American cellist, composer, and conductor, studied at the Stuttgart Conservatory. In 1886 the Metropolitan Opera Company engaged his wife, Therese Herbert-Föster, as a singer and Herbert as first cellist, and together they immigrated to the United States. From 1898 to 1904 he was conductor of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, but after 1904 he was chiefly engaged in composition. Two of Herbert's serious operas, Natoma (1911) and Madeleine (1914), were produced, but he achieved his major success with his melodious operettas, some of which are Babes in Toyland (1903), The Red Mill (1906), Naughty Marietta (1910), Sweethearts (1913), and Eileen (1917). He also wrote music for some of the Ziegfeld Follies, and composed some orchestral music and a cello concerto.

See biography by E. N. Waters (1955).

(born May 28, 1912, London, Eng.—died Sept. 30, 1990, Sydney, N.S.W., Austrl.) Australian writer. As a youth White moved between Australia and England, where he attended Cambridge University. After serving in the Royal Air Force during World War II, he returned to Australia, which he saw as a country in a volatile process of growth and self-definition. His somewhat misanthropic novels often explore the possibilities of savagery in that context; they include The Tree of Man (1955), Voss (1957), Riders in the Chariot (1961), and The Twyborn Affair (1979). His other works include plays and short stories, the latter collected in The Burnt Ones (1964) and The Cockatoos (1974). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1973.

Learn more about White, Patrick (Victor Martindale) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Viktor Vásárhelyi

(born April 9, 1908, Pécs, Hung.—died March 15, 1997, Paris, France) Hungarian French painter. Trained in Budapest in the Bauhaus tradition, he moved to Paris in 1930 and supported himself as a commercial artist. In the 1930s he was influenced by Constructivism, but by the 1940s he was painting animated surfaces of geometric forms and interacting colours. His style reached maturity in the mid 1950s and 1960s, with the use of more vibrant colours to increase the sense of movement through optical illusion, as in Sirius II (1954), and he became one of the leading figures of the Op art movement.

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orig. Dauferi

(born 1027, Benevento, principality of Benevento—died Sept. 16, 1087, Montecassino, principality of Capua; beatified July 23, 1887; feast day September 16) Pope (1086–87). As abbot of Monte Cassino from 1058, he promoted manuscript illumination, established a school of mosaic, and reconstructed the abbey. He served as papal vicar in southern Italy, negotiating peace between the Normans and the papacy. He was proclaimed pope against his will and was soon driven from Rome by supporters of Emperor Henry IV and the antipope Clement III. In 1087, after briefly retiring to his abbey, Victor resumed his papal authority and promoted the reforms of his predecessor, Pope Gregory VII. After sending an army to defeat the Saracens at Tunis (1087), he called a synod at Benevento and excommunicated Clement. He fell ill and returned to Monte Cassino, where he died.

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(born Feb. 1, 1859, Dublin, Ire.—died May 26, 1924, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Irish-born U.S. composer. After his widowed mother married a German doctor, he was raised in Stuttgart, and he studied at its conservatory. He married the soprano Therese Forrester in 1886, and they moved to the U.S., she to sing and he to play in the orchestra at the new Metropolitan Opera. He was soon active as a conductor, cellist, composer, and teacher. His solid training, orchestrating skill, and melodic gift found natural expression in more than 40 operettas, including Babes in Toyland (1903), Mlle Modiste (1905), The Red Mill (1906), and Naughty Marietta (1910).

Learn more about Herbert, Victor (August) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 24, 1883, Waldstein, Styria, Austria—died Dec. 17, 1964, Mount Vernon, N.Y., U.S.) Austrian-born U.S. physicist. He received his doctorate from the University of Vienna in 1906. His research dealt chiefly with radioactivity and atmospheric electricity. His experiments proved what had long been suspected: an extremely penetrating radiation of extraterrestrial origin permeates the atmosphere (see cosmic ray). Further investigation of this radiation, named cosmic rays in 1925, led Carl D. Anderson (1905–91) to discover the positron and opened up new fields of research in modern physics. For this work, Hess and Anderson shared a Nobel Prize in 1936.

Learn more about Hess, Victor Francis with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Italian Vittorio Emanuele

(born Nov. 11, 1869, Naples, Italy—died Dec. 28, 1947, Alexandria, Egypt) King of Italy (1900–46). Son of Umberto I, he came suddenly to the throne on his father's assassination (1900). He accepted a Liberal cabinet and readily agreed to Italy's war against Turkey (1911–12) and entry into World War I. After the war, he failed to prevent the rise of Benito Mussolini and the fascist seizure of power, which turned him into a figurehead sovereign. In 1943, after disastrous Italian military losses and the Allied invasion of Sicily, he had Mussolini arrested and replaced by Pietro Badoglio as premier. In 1944 he relinquished power to his son Umberto and, in an unsuccessful attempt to preserve the monarchy, abdicated in Umberto's favour in 1946 (see Umberto II). When the Italian republic was declared in 1946, father and son went into exile.

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Italian Vittorio Emanuele

Victor Emmanuel II.

(born March 14, 1820, Turin, Piedmont, Kingdom of Sardinia—died Jan. 9, 1878, Rome, Italy) King of Sardinia (1849–61) and first king of a united Italy (1861–78). The son of Charles Albert, he took part in the war against Austria (1848) and became king when his father abdicated in 1849. Assisted by his minister Camillo Cavour, he strengthened the kingdom and supported the Risorgimento movement for unity. In the war with Austria (1859–61), he commanded troops to victories in the Battles of Magenta and Solferino. He secretly encouraged Giuseppe de Garibaldi in the conquest of Sicily and Naples and led the invasion of the Papal States. He assumed the h1 of king of Italy (1861) and later acquired Venetia (1866) and Rome (1870).

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Italian Vittorio Emanuele

(born July 24, 1759, Turin, Kingdom of Sardinia—died Jan. 10, 1824, Moncalieri, near Turin) King of Sardinia (1802–21). Son of Victor Amadeus III and great-grandson of Victor Amadeus II, he led Sardinian forces against the French (1792–97). He became duke of Savoy and king of Sardinia in 1802 when his brother Charles Emmanuel IV abdicated. His kingdom, except for the island of Sardinia, was occupied by France (1802–14), then restored with the addition of Genoa by the Congress of Vienna (1815). He abdicated in 1821 in favour of his brother Charles Felix (1765–1831).

Learn more about Victor Emmanuel I with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 1, 1859, Dublin, Ire.—died May 26, 1924, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Irish-born U.S. composer. After his widowed mother married a German doctor, he was raised in Stuttgart, and he studied at its conservatory. He married the soprano Therese Forrester in 1886, and they moved to the U.S., she to sing and he to play in the orchestra at the new Metropolitan Opera. He was soon active as a conductor, cellist, composer, and teacher. His solid training, orchestrating skill, and melodic gift found natural expression in more than 40 operettas, including Babes in Toyland (1903), Mlle Modiste (1905), The Red Mill (1906), and Naughty Marietta (1910).

Learn more about Herbert, Victor (August) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Italian Vittorio Amedeo

(born May 14, 1666, Turin, Savoy—died Oct. 31, 1732, Moncalieri, near Turin) King of Sicily (1713–20) and of Sardinia (1720–30). The son of Charles Emmanuel II, he inherited his father's h1 as duke of Savoy in 1675 and grew up under a regency headed by his mother, who pursued a pro-French policy. In the War of the Spanish Succession he sided with France, but in 1703 he shifted to the Habsburg side. With the French defeat at Turin (1706) he secured his position in Italy. The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) gave him the h1 of king of Sicily, which he was obliged to exchange for Sardinia in 1720. As the first king of Sardinia, which also included Piedmont and Savoy, he established the foundation for the future Italian national state.

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(born Jan. 6, 1861, Ghent, Belg.—died Sept. 8, 1947, Brussels) Belgian architect. From 1892 he designed numerous buildings in Brussels, becoming a leading exponent of the Art Nouveau style. His Hôtel Tassel (1892–93) was a pioneering example of the new style. His chief work was the Maison du Peuple (1896–99), the first structure in Belgium to have a largely iron-and-glass facade. From 1912 he directed the Académie des Beaux-Arts, and he designed the Palais des Beaux-Arts (1922–28).

Learn more about Horta, Victor, Baron with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Viktor Vásárhelyi

(born April 9, 1908, Pécs, Hung.—died March 15, 1997, Paris, France) Hungarian French painter. Trained in Budapest in the Bauhaus tradition, he moved to Paris in 1930 and supported himself as a commercial artist. In the 1930s he was influenced by Constructivism, but by the 1940s he was painting animated surfaces of geometric forms and interacting colours. His style reached maturity in the mid 1950s and 1960s, with the use of more vibrant colours to increase the sense of movement through optical illusion, as in Sirius II (1954), and he became one of the leading figures of the Op art movement.

Learn more about Vasarely, Victor with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 16, 1900, Ipswich, Suffolk, Eng.—died March 20, 1997, London) British novelist, short-story writer, and critic. A full-time journalist from 1922 and a literary critic for the New Statesman (1928–65), Pritchett became known for his perceptive essays and reviews and for his penetrating and finely crafted short stories. His collections, which offer lively, ironic portraits of middle-class life, include You Make Your Own Life (1938), Blind Love (1969), and A Careless Widow (1989). He also wrote novels, travel books, and the admired memoirs A Cab at the Door (1968) and Midnight Oil (1971).

Learn more about Pritchett, Sir V(ictor) S(awdon) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 28, 1912, London, Eng.—died Sept. 30, 1990, Sydney, N.S.W., Austrl.) Australian writer. As a youth White moved between Australia and England, where he attended Cambridge University. After serving in the Royal Air Force during World War II, he returned to Australia, which he saw as a country in a volatile process of growth and self-definition. His somewhat misanthropic novels often explore the possibilities of savagery in that context; they include The Tree of Man (1955), Voss (1957), Riders in the Chariot (1961), and The Twyborn Affair (1979). His other works include plays and short stories, the latter collected in The Burnt Ones (1964) and The Cockatoos (1974). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1973.

Learn more about White, Patrick (Victor Martindale) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 6, 1861, Ghent, Belg.—died Sept. 8, 1947, Brussels) Belgian architect. From 1892 he designed numerous buildings in Brussels, becoming a leading exponent of the Art Nouveau style. His Hôtel Tassel (1892–93) was a pioneering example of the new style. His chief work was the Maison du Peuple (1896–99), the first structure in Belgium to have a largely iron-and-glass facade. From 1912 he directed the Académie des Beaux-Arts, and he designed the Palais des Beaux-Arts (1922–28).

Learn more about Horta, Victor, Baron with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 24, 1883, Waldstein, Styria, Austria—died Dec. 17, 1964, Mount Vernon, N.Y., U.S.) Austrian-born U.S. physicist. He received his doctorate from the University of Vienna in 1906. His research dealt chiefly with radioactivity and atmospheric electricity. His experiments proved what had long been suspected: an extremely penetrating radiation of extraterrestrial origin permeates the atmosphere (see cosmic ray). Further investigation of this radiation, named cosmic rays in 1925, led Carl D. Anderson (1905–91) to discover the positron and opened up new fields of research in modern physics. For this work, Hess and Anderson shared a Nobel Prize in 1936.

Learn more about Hess, Victor Francis with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Eugene V. Debs.

(born Nov. 5, 1855, Terre Haute, Ind., U.S.—died Oct. 20, 1926, Elmhurst, Ill.) U.S. labour organizer. Debs left home at age 14 to work in the railroad shops. As a locomotive fireman, he became an early advocate of industrial unionism, and he became president of the American Railway Union in 1893. His involvement in the Pullman Strike led to a six-month prison term in 1895. In 1898 he helped found the U.S. Socialist Party; he would run as its presidential candidate five times (1900–20). In 1905 he helped found the Industrial Workers of the World. Debs was charged with sedition in 1918 after denouncing the 1917 Espionage Act; he conducted his last presidential campaign from prison, winning 915,000 votes before being released by presidential order in 1921.

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Eugene V. Debs.

(born Nov. 5, 1855, Terre Haute, Ind., U.S.—died Oct. 20, 1926, Elmhurst, Ill.) U.S. labour organizer. Debs left home at age 14 to work in the railroad shops. As a locomotive fireman, he became an early advocate of industrial unionism, and he became president of the American Railway Union in 1893. His involvement in the Pullman Strike led to a six-month prison term in 1895. In 1898 he helped found the U.S. Socialist Party; he would run as its presidential candidate five times (1900–20). In 1905 he helped found the Industrial Workers of the World. Debs was charged with sedition in 1918 after denouncing the 1917 Espionage Act; he conducted his last presidential campaign from prison, winning 915,000 votes before being released by presidential order in 1921.

Learn more about Debs, Eugene V(ictor) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Victor is a Statutory City in Teller County, Colorado, United States. The population was 445 at the 2000 census.

Although in some respects Victor now almost resembles a ghost town, it was once, and indeed still remains, an active gold mining town. Victor is in the heart of Colorado's gold country, near the largest gold mines in the Cripple Creek mining district. Though most of the old mines are abandoned, modern mines still operate. One major open pit operation is run by AngloGold Ashanti, in addition to several locally-owned mines, all of which provide employment and revenue for the community. Though Victor hit a historic low in the early 2000s, the town is now coming back. With new businesses, renovation of historic buildings, and an up-swing in the local economy and property values, Victor is regaining some of the life once nearly extinguished.

Students are served by the Cripple Creek-Victor High School.

Geography

Victor is located at (38.709609, -105.140859).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.3 square miles (0.7 km²), all of it land.

History

Victor was founded in 1891, shortly after Winfield Scott Stratton discovered gold nearby. The town boomed as the surrounding Cripple Creek mining district quickly became the most productive gold mining district in the United States. Although Victor's fame was overshadowed by that of its neighbor, Cripple Creek, many of the best gold mines of the Cripple Creek district were located at Victor, including Stratton's Independence Mine and Mill and the Portland mine.

The workforce became heavily unionized after the militant Western Federation of Miners (WFM) conducted a significant strike in 1894. A subsequent strike in 1903 had such an impact that it came to be called the Colorado Labor Wars. The WFM's union hall in Victor still stands, with telltale bullet holes left intact. The building has structural problems and needs renovation.

Many of the historic buildings date to 1899 (having been rebuilt then, after a fire in August of that year destroyed much of the community). Included among these are the St. Victor Roman Catholic church (now used only rarely), the First Baptist Church of Victor (once owned by the Woods brothers, Victor’s founders), the Victor Hotel (which contains the oldest commercially operating elevator in the state), and several others.

The town declined steadily in the 1900s, as the gold mines became worked out, and the purchasing power of gold (the price was fixed at $20.67/troy ounce) declined. Gold mining increased in 1934 when the federal government raised the price of gold to $35/ounce, but gold mining was shut down during World War II as nonessential to the war effort. Some mines opened after the war, but all mines in the district closed by 1961.

The Cripple Creek & Victor Gold Mining Company formed in 1976 as a joint venture to restart mining in the district. From 1976 to 1989, the company produced 150,000 ounces of gold by reprocessing tailings and mining two small surface deposits. The Cripple Creek & Victor Gold Mining Company began the first large-scale open pit mining in the district in 1994. The Cresson mine open pits are located a few miles north of Victor. Mining continues today under the ownership of AngloGold Ashanti, producing about 330,000 troy ounces (10.3 tonnes) of gold annually.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 445 people, 203 households, and 111 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,635.8 people per square mile (636.4/km²). There were 360 housing units at an average density of 1,323.3/sq mi (514.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 93.48% White, 0.22% African American, 2.25% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 2.02% from other races, and 1.80% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.52% of the population.

There were 203 households out of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.4% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.3% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.84.

In the city the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 28.5% from 45 to 64, and 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,250, and the median income for a family was $34,375. Males had a median income of $38,750 versus $17,019 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,242. About 14.0% of families and 18.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.7% of those under age 18 and 5.0% of those age 65 or over.

Attractions

Victor has many mining and history related attractions:

Victor also lies along the Gold Belt Tour National Scenic and Historic Byway.

See also

References

External links


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