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Monarchy in Saskatchewan

The Monarchy in Saskatchewan is the constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, forming the core of the province's Westminster style parliamentary democracy. As the institution from which the power of the state flows, the terms Crown in Right of Saskatchewan, Her Majesty in Right of Saskatchewan, or The Queen in Right of Saskatchewan may also be used to refer to the entire executive of the government of Saskatchewan. As the pinnacle of governance, the authority of the Crown in the province is symbolised through elements included in various government institutions' insignia, as well as their names, such as the Court of Queen's Bench and the Queen's Printer.

Constitutional monarchy in Saskatchewan

The Crown in Right of Saskatchewan was established through the Saskatchewan Act, 1905, though the governments of the previous incarnations of the province, going back to the establishment of the Northwest Territories in 1868, have been monarchical in nature, and historical links with the French and British Crowns extend back even further, to the mid 1600s. Thus, there are numerous monuments and memorials to members of the Royal Family located across the province. However, though Saskatchewan has a separate government headed by the Queen, as a province, Saskatchewan is not itself a kingdom.

The present Canadian monarch is Elizabeth II, who has reigned since February 6, 1952; as she does not reside in Saskatchewan, a vice-regal representative, the Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan, is appointed by the Governor General, on the advice of the Prime Minister of Canada, to carry out all the monarch's duties in the province, which include a vast number of functions and duties central to the provincial government, judicial system, and system of honours, as well as governing provincial Crown corporations and Crown Land, and calling Royal Commissions. His Honour The Honourable Gordon Barnhart is the current Lieutenant Governor, having served since August 1, 2006. The viceroy is provided an official residence in Regina by the Crown, as well as an office and entertainment venue at Government House.

Though the Crown is central to the functioning of the government in Saskatchewan, members of the Royal Family predominantly perform ceremonial duties when on a tour of the province, visiting hospitals, charities, schools, communities, and the like.

Honours and awards

The monarch is not a part of the constitutions of any of Saskatchewan's orders, though authority for their creation does stem from the Crown. On occasion, members of the Royal Family will bestow awards in person, such as when Anne, Princess Royal, presented the Saskatchewan Protective Services Medal to 25 recipients, in Saskatoon in 2004. This marked the first time a member of the Royal Family had presented a provincial honour in Canada. Queen Elizabeth II also appointed Saskatchewan citizens to the Royal Victorian Order and personally presented them with the insignia when in the province in 2005. Under the authority of the Queen in Right of Saskatchewan, Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, have both been inducted into Saskatchewan Order of Merit (in 2001 and 2005, respectively), and both the Earl of Wessex and his wife, Sophie, Countess of Wessex, were awarded the Commemorative Medal for the Centennial of Saskatchewan in 2005.

The Cabinet will also present gifts to the sovereign and other Royal Family members during their visits to the province, the giving of which is administered by the Office of Protocol and Honours. Past gifts have include two paintings by Robert Newton Hurley to Queen Elizabeth II in 1951, and commissioned works by Catherine Perehudoff for Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother. Non-official gifts are also offered on various occasions, including a carload of locally-milled flour from Yorkton for Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, on her marriage in 1947.

See also: List of Canadian awards: Saskatchewan

History

Saskatchewan's monarchical history begins with the explorations of Henry Hudson, who, in 1611, embarked on the first trading voyage that led to the formation of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), founded by Royal Charter from King Charles II. The King claimed the entire Hudson Bay watershed which covered land all of what is now Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Minnesota, North Dakota, and more and called the area Rupert's Land, after Prince Rupert, who helped to form the HBC. In 1869, the territory was ceeded to the Crown in Right of Canada, pulling it into the Canadian jurisdiction of the Northwest Territories, administered by the Lieutenant Governor. After the creation of Manitoba in 1870, and of British Columbia in 1871, Saskatchewan, along with Alberta, entered Confederation on September 5, 1905, by Royal Proclamation issued by Govenror General Albert Grey, Earl Grey. Reporting to King Edward VII on the events of the day, the Governor General said in a telegram: "[the province] a new leaf in Your Majesty's Maple Crown.

Before that point members of the Royal Family were visiting the area. Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, with her husband, who was then Governor General, were the first to pass through in 1882, on an official visit to the newly designated, but not yet named, territorial capital. It was during this stop, in the dining room of the royal train, that Princess Louise named the new community Regina, after her mother the Queen. The royal viceroys were followed by Prince George, Duke of Cornwall, and his wife, Mary, Duchess of Cornwall (later King George V and Queen Mary), in 1901, when the stopped twice in Regina, once in September, while heading west to the coast, and again on October 5, on the return trip. Their uncle, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, innagurated the Legislative Building in 1912, George VI, was the first reigning monarch to travel Saskatchewan, coming with his consort, Queen Elizabeth, in May 1939. The royal train arrived in the town of Melville at 10:00 pm on June 3, bringing over 60,000 people to the town of 3,000. The stop was only meant to last ten minutes, after which the train would stay overnight for servicing. But, with the throngs of people who arrived, the royal party decided to extend the visit to a half hour, after which the train pulled away, returning a few hours later, once the crowds had dispersed. Canadian Press reporter R. J. Carnegie said of the stop: "Never throughout the tour did I see such unbridled enthusiasm as then." On June 4, the King and Queen took a brief walk around Unity, and in Saskatoon, where the royal couple visited the University of Saskatchewan, some 150,000 people turned out to see the monarchs, and hundreds of teenage girls dressed in red, white, and blue assembled in the image of a Royal Union Flag and sang "God Save the King".

George VI's daughter, Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, and her husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, visited in 1951, on behalf of her ailing father. Three months later, she asceeded to the throne as Queen Elizabeth II, and was coronated a year later, in June 1953; Premier Tommy Douglas was in attendance at the event. The couple returned again in 1959, Elizabeth by then queen, and a number of times after that, including for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police centennial in 1973, where she opened the new RCMP Museum Building. In 1980, the Queen's sister, Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, presided over the celebrations of the 75th anniversary of Saskatchewan's joining Confederation, and, in 1982, Princess Anne went to Regina to mark the city's centennial. between 2002 and 2003, the province marked Elizabeth II's Golden Jubilee with various events, both official and unofficial, as well as commemorative publications, a provincial Royal Proclamation read out at the Legislative Assembly, and the Queen's Golden Jubilee Statue Project, which resulted in the equestrian statue of the Queen riding Burmese (the horse gifted to the Queen by the RCMP), in front of the Legislature Building. Elizabeth II passed through Saskatchewan on her coast-to-coast tour for her Golden Jubilee celebrations, and retuned again in 2005 to mark the centennial of the province, when, like her parents before her, she visited the University of Saskatchewan and toured the Canadian Light Source Synchrotron.

Royal connections

Saskatchewan's monarchical status is illustrated via associations between the Crown and many private organizations within the province, as well as through royal names applied to regions, communities, schools, buildings, and monuments, many of which may also have a specific history with a member or members of the Royal Family.

Communities

The Crown's presence at the most local levels is demonstrated in part by royal and vice-regal namesakes chosen to be incorporated by communities across the province. Communities with royally or vice-regally associated named include:

Towns/cities named for Canadian sovereigns include:
Community Named for
Regina Queen Victoria
Towns/cities named for members of the Canadian Royal Family include:
Community Named for
Prince Albert Prince Albert, Prince Consort
Towns/cities named for members of the Canadian Royal Family include:
Community Named for
Aberdeen Governor General John Hamilton-Gordon, Marquess of Aberdeen
Earl Grey Governor General Albert Grey, Earl Grey
Tweedsmuir Governor General John Buchan, Baron Tweedsmuir

Within some of Saskatchewan's towns can also be found streets with royal names, such as Regina's Victoria Avenue, named for Queen Victoria, which crosses Albert Street, named in honour of Victoria's consort, Albert. Situated near Regina is Duke of Edinburgh Way at the McKell Wascana Conservation Project, named by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, in 2005. Further, the main thoroughfare streets in Viceroy are named for Canadian Governors General, while a similar concept was adopted in the town of Imperial, where street names include King, Queen, Prince and Princess. In Saskatoon, several city streets have royal namesakes including Victoria, Albert and Prince of Wales Avenues, and King, Queen and Princess Streets. Others with vice-regal namesakes include Landsdowne and Dufferin Avenues, and Devonshire, Vanier and Michener Crescents.

In Saskatoon there exist the neighbourhoods of King George, Queen Elizabeth, and Massey Place.

Education

Members of Canada's royal family and viceroys of Saskatchewan have associated themselves through personal visits, such as that of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, and Queen Elizabeth II to the University of Saskatchewan in 1939 and 2005, respectively, and those of Queen Elizabeth II, the Duke of Edinburgh, and the Earl of Wessex to the First Nations University of Canada between 2003 and 2005. Further, Saskatchewan's Lieutenant Governors act, by law, as visitors to both the University of Saskatchewan and the University of Regina. They may be called upon in this role under special circumstances, as happened in the University Crisis of 1919 at the University of Saskatchewan.

Saskatoon's only institution with a royal prefix, the Royal University Hospital, is located at the University of Saskatchewan, and, on the same campus, is the Diefenbaker Canada Centre, which holds original correspondence between former Prime Minister John Diefenbaker and Queen Elizabeth II.

Further Information: University of Saskatchewan's Royal Connections

Schools across the province are also named for Canadian sovereigns, royal family members, or either federal or provincial viceroys.

Schools named for Canadian sovereigns include:
School Location Named for
King George School Moose Jaw King George VI
King George Community School Prince Albert King George VI
Victoria School Kamsack Queen Victoria
Victoria School Saskatoon Queen Victoria
King George School Saskatoon King George VI
King Edward School Saskatoon King Edward VII
Schools named for members of the Canadian Royal Family include:
School Location Named for
Queen Elizabeth School Lloydminster Queen Elizabeth
Queen Elizabeth School Weyburn Queen Elizabeth
Queen Elizabeth School Saskatoon Queen Elizabeth
Prince Arthur Community School Moose Jaw Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Prince Philip School Saskatoon Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Princess Alexandra School Saskatoon Queen Alexandra when Princess of Wales
Queen Mary School Prince Albert Queen Mary
Princess Margaret School Prince Albert Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
Prince Charles School Prince Albert Prince Charles, Prince of Wales
Connaught School Regina Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Schools named for Canadian viceroys include:
School Location Named for
Roland Michener School Saskatoon Governor General Roland Michener
Vincent Massey School Saskatoon Governor General Vincent Massey
Massey School Regina Governor General Vincent Massey
Vincent Massey Community School Prince Albert Governor General Vincent Massey
Vanier Collegiate Institute Moose Jaw Governor General Georges Vanier
Earl Grey School Earl Grey Governor General Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey
F.W. Johnson Collegiate Regina Lieutenant Governor Frederick Johnson

Scholarships and academic awards

At the various levels of education within Saskatchewan, there exist a number of scholarships and academic awards either established by or named for members of the Royal Family. The Queen Elizabeth II Scholarship in Parliamentary Studies, for example, awards $20,000 to graduate and post-graduate students, established to commemorate the 1987 visit of Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh to the province. Also, the Queen Elizabeth II Centennial Aboriginal Scholarship of $20,000 is awarded to First Nations and Métis graduates of the First Nations University of Canada, and was created to mark the visit of the Queen and Duke of Edinburgh in 2005. The Queen Elizabeth II Scholarship awardeds $10,000 for graduate or post-graduate study of Saskatchewan politics and government at any of the province's universities.

The $500 Prince of Wales Scholarship was set up as an incentive for high school graduation, in commemoration of the first visit of Prince Chales, Prince of Wales, to Saskatchewan in 2001, and the 2003 visit of Charles' brother, Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, was honoured with the creation of the Prince Edward Drama Scholarship of $500 for youth studying theatre in Saskatchewan. Similarly, the C. Irwin McIntosh Journalism Prize of $450 was initiated to memorialise Cameron Irwin McIntosh, Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan between 1978 and 1983.

Royal Family members and viceroys have also been conferred honorary degrees by Saskatchewan universities. The Princess Royal, for example, was awarded her first Canadian honorary degree by the University of Regina in 2004, for her charitable work. The University of Saskatchewan awarded six degrees on viceroys between 1955 and 2006.

Landmarks

A number of buildings, monuments and geographic locations are named for Canadian monarchs, members of the Royal Family, or federal or provincial viceroys. For example, the Prince of Wales Branch Library in Regina opened as the Eastern Branch Library in 1913 and was renamed after a visit by Prince Edward, Prince of Wales, six years later. More than eight decades after that, the sod-turning for the Prince of Wales Cultural and Recreation Centre in Assiniboia was performed by Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, on visiting Saskatchewan in 2001. Further, the former post office in Regina was renamed as the Prince Edward Building in 1994, and was rededicated by its namesake. In Saskatoon is the King George Hotel, named for King George V, and the Patricia Hotel, which owes its name to Princess Patricia. For a viceroy, the Hotel Bessborough, called Saskatoon's "Castle on the River," was named with the consent of former Governor General Vere Ponsonby, Earl of Bessborough, in 1931. The hotel was visited by the Earl and his wife in 1932, and has served as the accommodation for a number of royal visitors. As well, the barrier-free entrance to the Legislative Building is named as the Prince of Wales Entrance.

Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh have worshipped on three occasions in 1951, 1959, and 1987 at Saskatoon's Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist, the cornerstone of which was laid in 1912 by Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, and Governor General Viscount Alexander worshipped there in 1948. Also, St. Paul's Cathedral in Regina has been a place for worship by members of Canada's Royal Family, including Princess Anne, Princess Royal, while St. John's Church in Moose Jaw has hosted Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, for worship. Both churches were the sites of provincial memorial services for Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, where Lieutenant Governor Lynda Haverstock presided.

Monuments to members of the Royal Family are located across the province. In Saskatchewan's capital city, the Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Equestrian Statue stands prominently in front of the Legislative Building. Unveiled by Queen Elizabeth II in 2005, the bronze statue depicts the sovereign on Saskatchewan-born horse Burmese, the favourite horse she was presented with by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 1969. A bronze statue of Saskatchewan-born Governor General Ramon Hnatyshyn was commissioned by the Ukrainian Canadian Congress, and stands along the banks of the South Saskatchewan River in downtown Saskatoon. The Anniversary Arch, rebuilt from stones taken from the original Saskatoon YWCA outside the organization's downtown location, was dedicated by Prince Charles, Prince of Wales.

Saskatoon civic parks such as Victoria Park, Princess Diana Multi-District Park, and Massey Park are also evidence of the Crown's presence in names, as well as Prince Albert National Park in central Saskatchewan. Similarly, Queen Elizabeth Court, in front of Regina City Hall, was dedicated by Her Majesty during her visit to the city in July 1978, and Prince Edward Park in Melfort, and Queen's Golden Jubilee Rose Garden in Moose Jaw, were both inaugurated by the Queen's son, Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, in 2003. Additionally, the Prince of Wales Promenade along the South Saskatchewan River is a popular viewpoint along the Meewasin Valley trails. Along that river stands the natural gas-fired Queen Elizabeth Power Station, which was originally named the South Saskatchewan River Generating Station but was renamed and commissioned by the Queen in 1959.

Organizations

Organizations in Saskatchewan may be founded by a Royal Charter, receive a royal prefix, and/or be honoured with the patronage of a member of the Royal Family. The Saskatchewan Museum of Natural History, for instance, received royal designation from Queen Elizabeth II in 1993, becoming the Royal Saskatchewan Museum. Similarly, in 1999, Saskatchewan's first golf course, the Regina Golf Club, joined an elite group of only five courses in Canada to receive the honour of royal designation by Elizabeth II. The Globe Theatre, housed in the Prince Edward Building in Regina, was granted patronage by Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, in 1992.

Although neither a royal designation or patronage, Regina's Western Hockey League team, the Regina Pats, is named in honour of Princess Patricia, granddaughter of Queen Victoria, who visited Saskatchewan several times as a child and proved popular with the people of the province.

See also

Bibliography

Notes

External links

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