A vernier scale is an additional scale which allows a distance or angle measurement to be read more precisely than directly reading a uniformly-divided straight or circular measurement scale. It is a sliding secondary scale that is used to indicate where the measurement lies when it is in between two of the marks on the main scale.
When a measurement is taken by mechanical means using one of the above mentioned instruments, the measure is read off a finely marked data scale (the "fixed" scale, in the diagram). The measure taken will usually be between two of the smallest graduations on this scale. The indicating scale ("vernier" in the diagram) is used to provide an even finer additional level of precision without resorting to estimation.
Direct and retrograde verniers are read in the same manner.
When a length is measured the zero point on the indicating scale is the actual point of measurement, however this is likely to be between two data scale points. The indicator scale measurement which corresponds to the best-aligned pair of indicator and data graduations yields the value of the finer additional precision digit.
On an instrument providing angular measure, the data scale could be in half-degrees with an indicator scale providing 30 1-minute graduations (spanning 29 of the half-degree graduations).
The vernier scale is constructed so that it is spaced at a constant fraction of the fixed main scale. So for a decimal measuring device each mark on the vernier would be spaced nine tenths of those on the main scale. If you put the two scales together with zero points aligned then the first mark on the vernier scale will be one tenth short of the first main scale mark, the second two tenths short and so on up to the ninth mark which would be misaligned by nine tenths. Only when a full ten marks have been counted would there be an alignment because the tenth mark would be ten tenths, that is a whole main scale unit, short and will therefore align with the ninth mark on the main scale.
Now if you move the vernier by a small amount, say, one tenth of its fixed main scale, the only pair of marks which come into alignment will be the first pair since these were the only ones originally misaligned by one tenth. If we had moved it 2 tenths then the second pair and only the second would be in alignment since these are the only ones which were originally misaligned by that amount. If we had moved it 5 tenths then the fifth pair and only the fifth would be in alignment. And so on for any movement, only one pair of marks will be in alignment and that pair will show what is the value of the small displacement.
Vernier acuity is the ability by a person to detect the proper alignment of two line segments. In most persons, Vernier acuity is particularly acute. This allows one to differentiate the aligned and misaligned marks on a Vernier scale.
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