Boer (in Dutch, or /ˈbɔr/ in English) is the Dutch word for farmer which came to denote the descendants of the proto Afrikaans-speaking pastoralists of the eastern Cape frontier in Southern Africa during the 18th century as well as those who left the Cape Colony during the 19th century to settle in the Orange Free State, Transvaal (together known as the Boer Republics) and to a lesser extent Natal. Their primary motivation for leaving the Cape was to escape British rule as well as the constant border wars between the British imperial government and the native tribes on the eastern frontier.
, as they were originally known, are descended mainly from Dutch Calvinist
Calvinist as well as French Huguenot
, and German Protestant
origins dating from the 1650s and into the 1700s. Minor numbers of Scandinavians
and Welsh people
were absorbed, as well as some descendants from early unions with slaves of mainly Indian
descent and local Khoi
For more information on history before the Great Trek, see Afrikaner.
Those Trekboers who trekked into and occupied the eastern Cape were semi-nomadic. A significant number in the eastern Cape frontier later became Grensboere ("border farmers") who were the direct ancestors of the Voortrekkers
. The Voortrekkers were those Boers (mainly from the eastern Cape) who left the Cape en masse in a series of large scale migrations later called the Great Trek beginning in 1835 as a result of British
colonialism and constant border wars. When used in a historical context, the term Boer may refer to an inhabitant of the Boer Republics
as well as those who were cultural Boers.
Though the Boers, without resistance, accepted British rule in 1877, they fought two wars in the late 19th century in order to defend their internationally recognized independent countries, the republics of the Transvaal (the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek
, or ZAR) and the Orange Free State
(OFS), against the threat of annexation by the British Crown. One of their primary grievances against the Cape Colony was "gelykstelling," or the social leveling between blacks and whites the British allegedly supported.
This, and other grievances, led the key figure in organizing the resistance, Paul Kruger
, into conflict with the British.
Boer War diaspora
After the second Anglo-Boer War, a Boer diaspora occurred. Starting in 1903 the largest group emigrated to the Patagonia region of Argentina. Another group emigrated to British-ruled Kenya, from where most returned to South Africa during the 1930s, while a third group under the leadership of General Ben Viljoen emigrated to Mexico and to New Mexico and Texas in south-western USA.
The Maritz Rebellion or the Boer Revolt or the Five Shilling Rebellion, occurred in South Africa in 1914 at the start of World War I, in which men who supported the recreation of the old Boer republics rose up against the government of the Union of South Africa. Many members of the government were themselves former Boers who had fought with the Maritz rebels against the British in the Second Boer War, which had ended twelve years earlier. The rebellion failed, and the ringleaders received heavy fines and terms of imprisonment.
The drive to trek (known as the trekgees) was a notable characteristic of the Boers in the past beginning in the 1690s out of necessity when the Trekboers began to inhabit the northern and eastern Cape frontiers, to the era of the Great Trek when the Voortrekkers left the eastern Cape en masse
, as well as later after major republics were established such as during the Thirstland Trek.
A rustic characteristic and tradition was developed quite early on as Boer society was born on the frontiers of white settlement and on the outskirts of civilization.
The Boer tradition of declaring republics predates the arrival of the British since when the British arrived a number of Boers were in rebellion from the VOC having declared republics.
The Boers of the frontier were known for their independent spirit, resourcefulness, hardiness, and self-sufficiency, whose political notions verged on anarchy but had begun to be influenced by republicanism.
The Boer nation was well-known for their strong nationalistic characteristics.
was born of hundreds of years of fighting against imperialism
, a continuing struggle for independence
battling the harsh African climate, a strong sense of nationhood, as well as an often conservative Christian
belief. As with any other ethnic group that has come from troubled land to troubled land, many of them see it as their duty to educate future generations on their people's past.
The Boer nation is mainly descended from Dutch, German and French Calvinists, who migrated to South Africa during the 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries. The Boer nation has revealed a distinct Calvinist
culture and the majority of Boers today are still members of a Reformed Church
. The Nederdeutsch Hervormde Kerk was the national Church of the South African Republic
(1852–1902). Also note the "Orange" in Orange Free State
(1854–1902) was named after the Protestant House of Orange
in the Netherlands
. Recently, however, many Boers have found a spiritual home in the Christian Identity
Movement. The Calvinist influence, however, remains, in that some fundamental Calvinist doctrines such as unconditional predestination
and divine providence
remains present in many of these Identity Churches. A small number of Boers may also be members of Baptist
or Lutheran Churches
In more recent times, mainly during the apartheid
reform and post-1994 eras, a number of white Afrikaans
-speaking people, mainly with "conservative" political views and of trekker descent, have preferred to be called "Boers" or Boere-Afrikaners
, rather than "Afrikaners". They feel that there were many people of Voortrekker
descent who were not co-opted or assimilated into what they see as the Cape
-based Afrikaner identity which began emerging after the Second Anglo-Boer War
and the subsequent establishment of the Union of South Africa
in 1910. Certain Boer Nationalists have asserted that they do not consider themselves a right-wing element of the political spectrum.
They contend that the Boers of the South African (ZAR) and Orange Free State republics were recognized as a separate people or cultural group under international law by the Sand River Convention (which created the South African Republic in 1852), the Bloemfontein Convention (which created the Orange Free State Republic in 1854), the Pretoria Convention (which re-established the independence of the South African Republic 1881), the London Convention (which granted the full independence to the South African Republic in 1884) and the Vereeniging Peace Treaty, which formally ended the Second Anglo-Boer War on 31 May 1902. Others contend, however, that these treaties dealt only with agreements between governmental entities and do not imply the recognition of a Boer cultural identity per se.
The supporters of these views feel that the Afrikaner designation (or label) was used from the 1930s onwards as a means of unifying (politically at least) the white Afrikaans speakers of the Western Cape with those of Trekboer and Voortrekker descent (whose ancestors began migrating eastward during the 1690s and throughout the 1700s and later northward during the Great Trek of the 1830s) in the north of South Africa, where the Boer Republics were established.
Since the Anglo-Boer war the term "Boervolk" was rarely used in the twentieth century because of this attempt to assimilate the Boervolk with the Afrikaners. A portion of those who are the descendants of the Boerevolk have reasserted this designation.
The supporters of the "Boer" designation view the term "Afrikaner" an artificial political label which usurped their history and culture, turning "Boer" achievements into "Afrikaner" achievements. They feel that the Western-Cape based Afrikaners — whose ancestors did not trek eastwards or northwards — took advantage of the republican Boers' destitution following the Anglo-Boer War and later attempted to assimilate the Boers into a new politically based cultural label as "Afrikaners".
('Movement for Christian-National Education') is a federation of 47 Calvinist private schools, primarily located in the Free State and the Transvaal, committed to educating Boer children from grade 0 through to 12.
Some local Radio stations promote the ideals of the Boere-Afrikaner people, like Radio Rosestad
(in Bloemfontein), Overvaal Stereo
and Radio Pretoria
See also: Volkstaat
Two territorial areas are being developed as settlement exclusively for Boere-Afrikaners, Orania in the Northern Cape and Kleinfontein near Pretoria.
- Andries Hendrik Potgieter
- Andries Pretorius
- Sarel Cilliers Voortrekker leader
- Piet Retief Voortrekker leader Great trek
- Dirkie Uys
- Racheltjie de Beer
- Marthinus OosthuizenParticipants in the Second Anglo-Boer War
- Christiaan Rudolf de Wet, general
- Danie Theron, soldier
- Gideon Jacobus Scheepers, soldier
- Japie Greyling, hero
- Koos de la Rey, general and regarded as being one of the great military leaders of that conflict.
- Manie Maritz, soldier
- Siener van Rensburg, considered a prophet by some.Politicians
- Louis Botha, first prime minister of South Africa (1910–9) and former Boer general
- Paul Kruger, president of the Transvaal Republic
- Petrus Jacobus Joubert, general and cabinet member of the Transvaal Republic
- Eugene Terre'Blanche, leader of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB) political and paramilitary group.Spies
- Fritz Joubert Duquesne, a Boer Captain known as the Black Panther, served in the Second Boer War. Captured in Mozambique, he escaped prison in Portugal and returned to South Africa as a British officer. In 1901, he was caught planning to sabotage strategic British installations in Cape Town and sentenced to life in prison; however, he escaped and was re-captured several times again throughout his life. In World War I, Duquesne spied for Germany, earning the Iron Cross for allegedly sinking the HMS Hampshire thereby killing Lord Kitchner in 1916. He also served as a Nazi spy in the United States and, in 1941, he was caught by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the largest espionage case in U.S. history: The Duquesne Spy Ring.