Rocket system that boosts a spacecraft into Earth orbit or beyond Earth's gravitational pull. A wide variety of launch vehicles have been used to lift payloads ranging from satellites weighing a few pounds (or kilograms) to large modular components of space stations. Most launch vehicles are expendable (one-use) systems; many early ones were derived from intercontinental ballistic missiles (see ICBM). The Saturn V, which launched the spacecraft that carried humans to the Moon (see Apollo), had three stages (see staged rocket). The U.S. space shuttle system (from 1981) represents a significant departure from expendable launch vehicles in that it is partially reusable—its manned orbiting component is designed for numerous flights, and its solid rocket boosters can be recovered and refurbished.
Learn more about launch vehicle with a free trial on Britannica.com.
Motor vehicle with plating for protection against bullets, shells, or other projectiles that moves on wheels or tracks. The tank is the chief armoured vehicle for larger military forces. Other military types include infantry fighting vehicles, amphibious landing vehicles, and mobile weapons platforms such as self-propelled artillery and antiaircraft guns. Infantry fighting vehicles, descended from the armoured personnel carriers of World War II and the Vietnam War, are armoured, tracked vehicles that transport infantry into battle but also serve as platforms from which soldiers can fight without dismounting. Armoured cars are wheeled civilian vehicles, ranging from commercial trucks to luxury sedans, that generally are equipped with armour and other amenities for securely transporting valuables and individuals over paved roads.
Learn more about armoured vehicle with a free trial on Britannica.com.
Vehicle supported above the surface of land or water by an air cushion, produced by downwardly directed fans, enclosed within a flexible skirt beneath the hull. The concept was first proposed by John Thornycroft in the 1870s, but a working model was not produced until 1955, when Christopher Cockerell solved the problem of keeping the air cushion from escaping from under the vehicle, and formed Hovercraft Ltd. to manufacture prototypes. Problems with skirt design and engine maintenance have restricted the vehicle's commercial application; today hovercraft are used mainly as ferries.
Learn more about air-cushion vehicle with a free trial on Britannica.com.
Vehicles, derived from the Latin word, vehiculum, are non-living means of transport. Most often they are manufactured (e.g. bicycles, cars, motorcycles, trains, ships, boats, and aircraft), although some other means of transport which are not made by humans also may be called vehicles; examples include icebergs and floating tree trunks.
Vehicles may be propelled or pulled by animals, for instance, a chariot, a stagecoach, a mule-drawn barge, or an ox-cart. However, animals on their own, though used as a means of transport, are not called vehicles, but rather beasts of burden or draft animals. This distinction includes humans carrying another human, for example a child or a disabled person.
A rickshaw is a vehicle that may carry a human and be powered by a human, but it is the mechanical form or cart that is powered by the human that is labeled as the vehicle. For some human-powered vehicles the human providing the power is labeled as a driver.
European Community, is based on the Community's WVTA (whole vehicle type-approval) system. Under this system, manufacturers can obtain certification for a vehicle type in one Member State if it meets the EC technical requirements and then market it EU-wide with no need for further tests. Total technical harmonization already has been achieved in three vehicle categories (passenger cars, motorcycles, and tractors) and soon will be extended to other vehicle categories (coaches and utility vehicles). It is essential that European car manufacturers be ensured access to as large a market as possible.
While the Community type-approval system allows manufacturers to benefit fully from the opportunities offered by the internal market, worldwide technical harmonization in the context of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) offers them a market which extends beyond European borders.
"Vehicle Inlet for Use in Charging a Battery of an Electric Vehicle (EV) or a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)" in Patent Application Approval Process
Mar 21, 2013; By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Politics & Government Week -- A patent application by the inventors Pusch, Reinhard...