Definitions

vassalry

Mudaito dynasty

The Sultans of the Mudaito Dynasty (Modaytó) were the ruling family of the Afar Aussa Sultanate, which ruled a part of today's Eastern Ethiopia; it became a vassal of the Emperor of Ethiopia in the early 17th century during the reign of Susenyos I, becoming independent again sometime during the 19th century before accepting some degree of vassalry to the kingdom of Shewa in Ethiopia in the 19th century, finally being formally incorporated in 1902.

The title of the sultans was amóyta. European sources often call the sultans "Anfari" (or Hanfari, Hampharé etc.), after the sultan governing for very long time in the 19th century, whose name often also appears in the long names of his descendants. This is a quite widerspread misspelling of Afar "Hanfadhe" (dh = retroflex d, in modern Afar spelling x), used by both Europeans and highland Ethiopians (today often written "Hanfare", after the Amharic misspelling).

This list is based primarily on Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, vol. 1, article on Afar literature; and Didier Morin, Dictionnaire historique des Afar, 2003 (however his material on the 18th century is considered controversial).

Names of sultans (amoyta), with modern Afar spelling in Latin letters in brackets.

1734 - 1749 Kadhafo (Kaxxafo)
1749 - 1779 Kadhafo Mahammad ibn Kadhafo
1779 - 1801 Aydahis ibn Kadhafo Mahammad
1801 - 1832 "Asa" Aydahis ibn Mahammad ibn Aydahis ("Qasa" Aydacis Macammad), first Amoyta
1832 - 1862 Hanfadhe ibn Aydahis (Canfaxe Aydacis)
1862 - 1902 Mahammad "Illalta" ibn Hanfadhe (Macammad "Illalta" Canfaxe)
1902 Incorporated into Ethiopia
1902 - ca. 1910 Mahammad ibn Aydahis ibn Hanfadhe (Macammad Aydacis)
Starting from 1902 the governorship of Mahammad ibn Aydahis was challenged by his cousins, the nine sons of his direct predecessor, Aydahis, Alimirah, Kadhafo, Hanfadhe, Alo and Yayyo (the later sultan)
c. 1902 - 1927 Yayyo ibn Mahammad ibn Hanfadhe (Yayyo Macammad)
1927 - 1944 Mahammad Yayyo (Macammad Yayyo)
1945 - 1975 Alimirah Hanfadhe (Qali Mirac Canfaxe)
1975 - 1991 Alimirah Hanfadhe (exiled)
1991 - present Alimirah Hanfadhe "spiritual leader"

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