Vacuum distillation is a method of distillation whereby the pressure above the liquid mixture to be distilled is reduced to less than its vapor pressure (usually less than atmospheric pressure) causing evaporation of the most volatile liquid(s) (those with the lowest boiling points). This distillation method works on the principle that boiling occurs when the vapor pressure of a liquid exceeds the ambient pressure. Vacuum distillation is used with or without heating the solution.
Vacuum distillation is sometimes referred to as low temperature distillation. Typical industrial applications utilize the heat pump cycle to maximize efficiency. This type of distillation is in use in the oil industry where common ASTM standards are D1160, D2892, D5236. These standards describe typical applications of vacuum distillation at pressures of about 1-100 mbar. Pilot plants up to 60 L can be built in accordance with these standards.
Industrial-scale vacuum distillation has several advantages. Close boiling mixtures may require many equilibrium stages to separate the key components. One tool to reduce the number of stages needed is to utilize vacuum distillation. Vacuum distillation columns (as depicted in the drawing to the right) typically used in oil refineries have diameters ranging up to about 14 meters (46 feet), heights ranging up to about 50 meters (164 feet), and feed rates ranging up to about 25,400 cubic meters per day (160,000 barrels per day).
Vacuum distillation increases the relative volatility of the key components in many applications. The higher the relative volatility, the more separable are the two components; this connotes fewer stages in a distillation column in order to effect the same separation between the overhead and bottoms products. Lower pressures increase relative volatilities in most systems.
A second advantage of vacuum distillation is the reduced temperature requirement at lower pressures. For many systems, the products degrade or polymerize at elevated temperatures.
Vacuum distillation can improve a separation by:
Another advantage of vacuum distillation is the reduced capital cost, at the expense of slightly more operating cost. Utilizing vacuum distillation can reduce the height and diameter, and thus the capital cost of a distillation column.