There is little to no historical consensus regarding the invention of the vacuum cleaner, but one of the first prototypes to use the same principles as the modern vacuum cleaner was "The Whirlwind," a manually powered prototype constructed in 1868 by Ives W. McAffey and patented a year later. Several other inventors built similar devices at the same time, including Melville R. Bissell, who built a push-powered carpet sweeper for his wife. Englishman Hubert Cecil Booth built the first motorized vacuum cleaner in 1901. It was a gas-powered, horse-drawn apparatus used a piston pump and a cloth filter to draw air. The first portable electric vacuum cleaner was the Electrolux Model V, which was first introduced to the market in 1921. It was not until after the end of WWII that the vacuum cleaner turned into a common household item.