The Department of Defense Serum Repository (also referred to as the DoD Serum Repository or simply DoDSR) is a biological repository operated by the United States Department of Defense containing over 44,000,000 human serum specimens, collected primarily from applicants to and members of the United States Uniformed Services.
The DoDSR is located in Silver Spring, Maryland and is operated by the
Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), a subordinate of the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM), itself evolved from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. The DoDSR traces its origins to 1985 and the beginnings of the United States Armed Forces HIV screening program (originally referred to as the HLTV-III screening program), when serum remaining after periodic laboratory testing of service members was retained first by the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), then later systematically archived in the Army/Navy Serum Repository, the precursor to the DoDSR.
Today the DoDSR is among the largest serum repositories in the world, in terms of numbers of individuals represented, number of longitudinal specimens stored per individual, and total quantity of serum. The majority of specimens are linked to detailed medical and personnel data, creating a valuable resource for retrospective research and public health surveillance. The DoDSR's longitudinal serum, collected systematically from a large population, has enabled major contributions to understanding the etiology of many health conditions not otherwise amenable to prospective study, including multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, autoimmune diseases and cancer.
The earliest serum housed in the DoDSR was collected through the Armed Forces’ HLTV-III screening program, implemented in 1985 in response to the emergence of a new human virus
, subsequently known as Human Immunodeficiency Virus
(HIV). Early laboratory testing was performed via contracted private laboratories. Screening soon expanded to all civilian applicants processed at Military Entrance Processing Stations
. A condition of some early laboratory testing contracts specified that remnant serum were to remain in frozen storage. In 1989, the Army
’s Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
(WRAIR) awarded a contract to McKesson
to consolidate and store accumulated residual serum specimens at a single facility, established in proximity to WRAIR in Rockville
. The HIV Research Program (established by Congressional Direction in 1986) , under the WRAIR
Division of Retrovirology
, established the Walter Reed
Army Serum Repository, which would evolve to become the Army/Navy Serum Repository in 1989.
Growth of the DoDSR Inventory
The DoDSR was designated as the ultimate storage facility for all serologically negative specimens. With the routine screening of all civilian applicants and the continued screening of retained military personnel (at approximate two year intervals), by 1990 the DoDSR contained over six million serum specimens, and by 1996 over 17 million specimens. Standardized processes in place at the contracted HIV testing laboratories facilitated management of the growing number of specimens. In 2001, the repository inventory was moved to its current location, a facility in Silver Spring
. In recent years, the DoDSR has grown by approximately 1.9 million specimens annually. By 2008, the DoDSR inventory had grown to over 44 million specimens.
Addition of Pre- and Post-Deployment Specimens
Prompted by experiences in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War
, including claims by many service members of adverse health outcomes
, the December, 1995 deployment of U.S. service members to Bosnia
was accompanied by increased emphasis on health surveillance. A 1996 Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs
memorandum mandated the collection of pre- and post-deployment serum specimens from deploying service members, and their integration into the DoDSR. The policy also directed that specimens collected for HIV surveillance could suffice. Although a small number of specimens were collected directly for health surveillance outside of existing HIV testing channels, specimens collected in this manner suffered from lack of standardization. By 1999, the Assistant Secretary of Defense issued modified instructions , which directed that the requirement for pre- and post-deployment specimens be satisfied by HIV testing. Initially, an HIV specimen was required to be collected prior to deployment if none had been collected in the year prior.
Concerns over the adequacy of specimens collected for this purpose, including findings of the Rhode Island Gulf War Commission, contributed to public concern over the adequacy of existing serum collection practices. The FY2005 Defense Authorization Act called on the Department of Defense to perform
"[a]n assessment of whether there is a need for changes to regulations and standards for drawing blood samples for effective tracking and health surveillance of the medical conditions of personnel before deployment, upon the end of a deployment, and for a followup period of appropriate length".
Additionally, this legislation required DoD to change its policies to require collection of an HIV specimen within 120 days pre-deployment and 30 days post-deployment. This change was later rescinded in conjunction with the later recommendations of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board
, to permit a sample collected within the year prior to deployment to meet requirements. Despite the many changes in policies, the large numbers of service members deploying in support of Operations Iraqi Freedom
and Enduring Freedom
have led to a moderate increase in the rate of specimen acquisition and growth of the DoDSR inventory.
Evolution of the DoDSR Mission and Custody
The DoDSR has evolved from a research-affiliated repository limited to storing HIV seronegative specimens, to a repository serving a broad health surveillance mission for which it was not originally intended.
The first officially articulated purpose of the DoDSR is found in a 1991 WRAIR
solicitation for the management of the precursor to the DoDSR:
"Sera repository operations are required for retrospective studies in support of current and future retroviral research efforts... Analysis of these sera will be very important."
solicitation anticipated as-needed specimen retrieval of up to 5,000 specimens per year.
In 1995, responsibility and custody of the DoDSR inventory and its associated database was transferred from WRAIR to a newly-formed subordinate command of the United States Army Medical Command, the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM). USACHPPM itself evolved from the U.S. Army Industrial Hygiene Laboratory, which was initially established in 1942 at the beginning of World War II at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene, now the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. The change in custody was accompanied by an increased emphasis on the epidemiologic, public health and health surveillance utility of DoDSR specimens.
A DoD Instruction issued in 1997, since rescinded, described the purpose of the DoDSR as being for
"medical surveillance for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological studies. The repository shall be used exclusively for the identification, prevention, and control of diseases associated with operational deployments of military personnel".
A subsequent DoD Directive, DoDD 6490.02E, expanded authorized uses of the DoDSR slightly:
"There shall be a Department of Defense Serum Repository for medical surveillance for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological studies. The repository shall be used for the identification, prevention, and control of diseases associated with military service".
Rationale for Current Practices
Responding to concerns outlined in the FY2005 Defense Authorization Act
, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs
requested the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board
(AFEB) address three questions related to the mission and operation of the DoDSR:
- Is there a sound basis for the continued routine collection of sera pre- and post-deployment for clinical care reasons, public health surveillance or research purposes in order to examine the effects of deployment on health?
- Should any other biological specimens be collected for clinical care reasons, public health surveillance, or research purposes?
- Are there any valid reasons to change the time frames of specimens of collected biological specimens either pre- or post-deployment for clinical care reasons, public health surveillance, or research purposes?
The AFEB study determined that there was sound basis for the continued collection of serum, but recommending the additional collection of white blood cells in addition to serum. The AFEB study also recommended that the DoD establish an oversight panel be created to govern access to the specimens. Neither recommendation has yet been acted on.
The DoDSR facility is located in of leased commercial space in a building located at 11800 Tech Road, Silver Spring, Maryland. The leased space was acquired through a ten year lease managed by the General Services Administration (GSA) which expires October 1st, 2010.
The commercial facility is shared with two other major tenants: Holy Cross Hospital, and Comcast , whose continued occupancy precludes contiguous expansion of the DoDSR inventory. Due to space constraints at the existing facility, relocation of the DoDSR inventory to another location in the Baltimore - National Capital region (including Ft. Meade, Maryland) was considered as early as 2005 .
Considerations under BRAC
Although AFHCS maintains technical and computing facilities supporting the DoDSR at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center
(WRAMC), Washington, D.C.
and is subject to reallignment under the recommendations of the Base Reallignment and Closure
(BRAC) Commission, published BRAC recommendations do not specify a location to which the facilities must relocate. Relocation of the WRAMC AFHSC facilities are necessary by September 15, 2011.
The DoDSR is operated by Thermo Electron Corporation
under a no-bid
or "sole-source" contract awarded in 2006. An earlier no-bid contract was awarded to Cryonix in 2005, although Cryonix was later incorporated under Thermo Electron Corporation's Biorepository Services division
The DoDSR consists of 15 large walk-in freezers, each approximately x 30 feet x 10 high , whose interiors are maintained at -30°C by pairs of compressors.
The majority of serum specimens are stored inside the walk-in freezers in cardboard boxes, approximately 6 x 18 x in size, each containing 308 specimens, and each consisting of approximately 2.5 mL of frozen serum The cardboard boxes are sequentially numbered and labeled, and stored on metal shelving units within the walk-in freezers for ready accessibility and retrieval.
Due to storage constraints, approximately 5.5 million specimens from two walk-in freezers were placed into "high-density" configuration in 2006, and additional reconfiguration may be required. The current operations contract calls for the contractor to
"adjust the storage configurations of specimens in one or more freezers to accommodate high-density, boxed specimen storage" as required.
Transportation of Specimens to the DoDSR
The majority of specimens are received quarterly in frozen form, following completion of all HIV testing. Shipments arrive in pallets transported in a freezer truck from the major contracted testing laboratory, ViroMed
, which is located in Minnetonka
In 2008, the DoDSR procured a specialized freezer truck to transport specimens to the DoDSR, and solicited a bid for more frequent transport of specimens to the repository.
DoDSR inventory data and related information are stored in an Oracle
database referred to as the Defense Medical Surveillance System
(DMSS) , which serves as the the "sole link" to the DoDSR inventory. Serum specimens are identified by a unique specimen identification number
, which for the majority of specimens are linked to the Social Security Number
of the donor , and the date the specimen was obtained.
In addition to inventory data, DMSS also integrates select medical outcomes data available through the Military Health System (MHS), including International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9CM) diagnosis codes, Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes, and other pertinent administrating data from inpatient and outpatient encountered provided directly by the MHS or through Tricare managed care services.
Active duty component service members (unlike service members in the Reserve components), are entitled to free (or nearly free) health care for the duration of their military service, the details of which are captured electronically in DMSS. The active duty component thus constitutes a cohort where health events can be assessed longitudinally with minimal ascertainment bias. Over half of the specimens in the DoDSR are traceable to service members who have been on active duty, and 75% of active duty service members have provided three or more longitudinal specimens.
Limited additional health and personnel data linked to DoDSR specimens include records of immunizations, overseas deployments, military assignment data, and records from pre- and post-deployment health assessments.
Linkes to Other Available Data
Significant additional MHS
administrative and clinical data exist which are not integrated into DMSS. These include:
Recent AFHSC solicitations have requested additional staff to address these data shortfalls.
Linkages to Other DoD Biological Repositories
The Department of Defense, through the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
operates the National Tissue Repository (NPR), which contains approximately 3 million case files and associated paraffin blocks, microscopic glass slides, and formalin-fixed tissue specimens from pathologic examinations occurring throughout the Military Health System. Thousands of cases are added to the repository each year. With the disestablishment of the AFIP under Base Reallignment and Closure
, management of the NPR is to transfer to the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Despite the utility of linking tissue specimens from confirmed pathological diagnoses to longitudinal pre-diagnostic serum available in the DoDSR, no formal linkage of the NPR inventory has yet been made to DMSS.
Permitted Uses of DoDSR Specimens
Requests for access to DoDSR specimens are governed by guidelines
developed by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. According to guidelines, " [t]he Director of the repository is solely responsible for authorizing releases of specimens from the repository."
DoDSR specimens may only be released to principal investigators outside the Department of Defense for purposes of medical research if the proposed study has "a coinvestigator who is assigned to the Department of Defense and is knowledgeable, responsible, and accountable for all aspects of the study’s design and execution (including data management, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of results).
Serum from the DoDSR may be requested by clinicians within the Military Health System to aid diagnosis and guide clinical management. Serum may also be released to clinicians outside the Military Health System provided a physician in the Military Health System in the same specialty as the requestor validates the clinical relevance of the requested use prior to the release of any serum.
Serum specimens from the DoDSR may be used for criminal investigations and prosecutions if directed by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs
DoDSR specimens are collected without informed consent, and specimen donors are not informed of the use of their specimens in subsequent studies. Specimens retrieved by the DoDSR for use in external research studies are, with rare exceptions, deidentified prior to being sent to outside investigators.
A 1996 memorandum
specifically stated that DoDSR specimens collected for pre- and post-deployment health surveillance "will not be used for any genetics related testing"
Civilian and Beneficiary Serum
As a result of routine or clinically-indicated HIV testing performed on civilians and family beneficiaries (eligible for health care within the Military Health System), serum specimens from approximately 900,000 individuals not affiliated with the Uniformed Services through application or service are also stored in the DoDSR.
Destruction of Specimens
DoDSR guidelines are silent as to whether a mechanism exists for specimen donors to request destruction or removal of their specimens from the repository. This is in contrast to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology DNA
Repository (also known as the Repository of Specimen Samples for the Identification of Remains) which articulates a mechanism
for donors to request the destruction of their specimens following separation from service.
study commissioned by USACHPPM
is currently underway "to examine and recommend ways to optimize use of the DoDSR, particularly for use in biosurveillance for influenza and other health threats.
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