is a term to describe an American Southerner
who was opposed to the American Civil War
from the beginning of the war.
- Storey, Margaret M. "Civil War Unionists and the political culture of loyalty in Alabama, 1860-1861". Journal of Southern History
- Ford, Lacy K. Origins of Southern Radicalism: The South Carolina Upcountry, 1800-1860. New York: Oxford University Press.