Outsourcing relationship management appeared as a specific management discipline in 1999 after an industry consortium, the Sourcing Interests Group, began developing guidelines for its member companies. Following this introduction, the theories of outsourcing relationship management have been developed by numerous global industry groups, universities, consulting/advisory firms and software companies. The term is in wide usage today and the practice of outsourcing relationship management is becoming increasingly important to companies that are using external service providers as part of their organizational strategy.
ORM is complementary to other established enterprise management strategies in its relationship to established enterprise resource planning (ERP) tools and the linkage to important business constituents.
A challenge in implementing ORM strategies lies in the nature of the outsourcing relationship itself. In his 2004 book "The Outsourcing Revolution., author Michael Corbett discusses the challenges of integrating two separate business entities (the client and the external service provider) across the different organizational boundaries and differing motivations and objectives. This book was one of the earliest works to focus on outsourcing relationship management as one of the keys to successful outsourcing strategies. More recently, Gartner has launched an outsourcing specialty which has conducted significant research in this area.
The importance of ORM will only increase as companies continue to pursue "Extended Enterprise" or "Corporation 2.0" strategies to take advantage of the skills, resources and global footprint of external service providers. In the 2006 Global CEO Study, IBM has identified business model innovation as the most important success factor cited by the 765 global CEOs surveyed. The survey noted that "fully 65 percent of chief executives and other leaders say they will have to make fundamental changes in their businesses over the next two years. New products and services remain a priority, but they’re placing increasing emphasis on differentiating themselves through innovation in the basics of their business models. They believe that external collaboration across their business ecosystems will yield a multitude of innovative ideas."
One often unexpected demand of implementing an outsourcing strategy is the requirement for new management techniques and specialized skills among the client-side management team. Over the last five years or so, this need has become more generally known but companies are still struggling to address the requirements adequately. For example, a 2002 Computerworld article documents the need for managers skilled in ORM for managing IT outsourcing. A more recent article in DM Review points out that there is still a need for specialized outsourcing relationship managers and cites this as a career opportunity.
University researchers are also studying the requirements and developing models and methodologies around this phenomenon. For example, Carnegie Mellon University has developed a detailed Sourcing Capability Model to measure the maturity and skills required for effective outsourcing relationship management. The University of Michigan sponsors research and events focused on the challenges and management strategies for successful outsourcing.
Recent trends in outsourcing strategies find clients adopting a "multi-sourcing" strategy in order to better leverage and scale the outsourcing operations and find more specialized service providers. In early 2007, a CIO Magazine article explores this trend.
Unfortunately, companies usually think of formal organizational design for governance only after they are well into the implementation phase, if they think of it at all. There is growing recognition that effective governance is critical to success in outsourcing. Rather than deal with governance as an afterthought, the outsourcing enterprise should evaluate successful outsourcing governance models as they develop their outsourcing relationship management strategies.
One consequence of outsourcing is that the IT infrastructure of the organization is severed and must be reestablished in some way to the external service providers. There are significant compliance, security and technology barriers to accomplishing this, however. One important aspect of ORM is building the technology infrastructure and tools required. Here again, this is too often an afterthought, only being addressed after issues of communication, performance monitoring and reporting are discovered in the implementation phase of the outsourcing deal.
|International Association of Outsourcing Professionals||Professional certification|
|Vantage Partners||Negotiation and relationship management|
|PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC)||Outsourcing advisory|
|Hiperos||Strategic Relationship software|
|DigitalFuel||SLA management software|
|Enlighta||Outsourcing governance software|
|Janeeva||On-demand ORM software|
In the book, "Multisourcing," Gartner analysts point out that successful outsourcing is built on "a network of relationships, not transactions," and outsourcing governance is the most important factor in determining the success of an outsourcing engagement. But many companies still haven’t realized the truth of this statement. Gartner found that fewer than 30 percent of enterprises have formal sourcing strategies and appropriate outsourcing governance mechanisms in place. In a 2004 survey of 130 CIOs, 42 percent said they were dissatisfied with their outsourcing relationships, according to outsourcing advisory company EquaTerra, primarily due to poorly developed, underbudgeted and undersourced governance models.