Definitions

un keyed

List of bagpipes

Western Europe

Great Britain

  • Great Highland Bagpipe: the world's most commonly played bagpipe.
  • Northumbrian smallpipes: a smallpipe with a closed end chanter played in staccato.
  • Border pipes: also called the "Lowland Bagpipe", commonly confused with smallpipes, but much louder. Played in the Lowlands of Scotland, and in England near the Anglo-Scottish border. Conically bored, sounding similar in timbre to the Highland pipes, but partially or fully chromatic.
  • Scottish smallpipes: a modern re-interpretation of an extinct instrument. Derived from the Northumbrian pipes by Colin Ross and others.
  • Cornish bagpipes: an extinct type of double chanter bagpipe from Cornwall (southwest England); there are currently attempts being made to revive it on the basis of literary descriptions and iconographic representations.
  • Welsh pipes (Welsh:pibe cyrn, pibgod): Of two types, one a descendant of the pibgorn, the other loosely based on the Breton Veuze. Both are mouthblown with one bass drone.
  • Pastoral pipes: Although the exact origin of this keyed, or un-keyed chanter and keyed drones (regulators), pipe is uncertain, it was developed into the modern Uilleann bagpipe.
  • English bagpipes: with the exception of the Northumbrian smallpipes, no English bagpipes maintained an unbroken tradition. However, music enthusiasts are attempting to "reconstruct" various English bagpipes based on descriptions and representations, but no actual physical evidence.
  • Zetland pipes: a reconstruction of pipes believed to have been brought to the Shetland Islands by the Vikings, though not clearly historically attested.

Ireland

  • Uilleann pipes: Bellows-blown bagpipe with keyed or un-keyed chanter and keyed drones (regulators). The most common type of bagpipes in Irish traditional music.
  • Great Irish Warpipes: Carried by most Irish regiments of the British Army (except the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers) until the late 1960s, when the Great Highland Bagpipe became standard. The Warpipe differed from the latter only in having a single tenor drone.
  • Brian Boru bagpipes: Carried by the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and had three drones, one of which was a baritone, pitched between bass and tenor. Unlike the chanter of the Great Highland Bagpipe, its chanter is keyed, allowing for a greater tonal range.
  • Pastoral pipes: Although the exact origin of this keyed, or un-keyed chanter and keyed drones (regulators), pipe is uncertain, it was developed into the modern Uilleann bagpipe.

France

  • Musette de cour: French ancestor of the Northumbrian pipes, used in folk music as well as classical compositions in the 18th century French court. The shuttle design for the drones was recently revived and added to a mouth blown Scottish smallpipe.
  • Biniou or biniou koz (old style bagpipe): a mouth blown bagpipe from Brittany, a Celtic region of northwestern France. It is the most famous bagpipe of France. The great Highland bagpipe is also used in marching bands called bagadoù and known as biniou braz (great bagpipe).
  • Veuze, found in the Vendée department of west-central France, similar to Galician gaitas.
  • Cabrette, played in the Auvergne region of central France.
  • Chabrette or chabretta, found in the Limousin region of central France.
  • Bodega, found in Languedoc region of southern France, made of an entire goat skin.
  • Boha, found in the Gascogne region of southwestern France.
  • Musette bressane, found in the Bresse region of eastern France.
  • Bagpipes of central France: (French cornemuse du centre or musette du centre) are of many different types, some mouth blown. It can be found in the Bourbonnais, Berry, Nivernais, and Morvan regions of France and in different tonalities.
  • "Chabrette poitevine," found in the Poitou region of west-central France, but now extremely rare.

The Netherlands and Belgium

Germany

  • Dudelsack: German bagpipe with two drones and one chanter. Also called Schäferpfeife (shepherd pipe) or Sackpfeife. The drones are sometimes fit into one stock and do not lie on the player's shoulder but are tied to the front of the bag.
  • Mittelaltersackpfeife: Reconstruction of medieval bagpipes after descriptions by Michael Praetorius and depictions by Albrecht Durer, among others. While the exterior is reconstructed from these sources, the interior and sound are often similar to the Scottish Great Highland Bagpipe. Commonly tuned in A minor and used by musical groups specialising in medieval tunes. Often to be seen at medieval festivals and markets.
  • Huemmelchen: small bagpipe with the look of a small medieval pipe or a Dudelsack. The sound is similar to that of the Uilleann pipes, or sometimes the smallpipes. Seldom louder than 60 or 70 dB.

Switzerland

  • Schweizer Sackpfeife (Swiss bagpipe): In Switzerland, the Sackpfiffe was a common instrument in the folk music from the Middle Ages to the early 18th century, documented by iconography and in written sources. It had one or two drones and one chanter with double reeds.

Austria

  • Bock (literally, male goat) — see Dudy below

Northern Europe

  • Säckpipa: Also the Swedish word for "bagpipe" in general, this instrument was on the brink of extinction in the first half of the 20th century. It has a cylindrical bore and a single reed, as well as a single drone at the same pitch as the bottom note of the chanter.
  • Torupill: an Estonian bagpipe with one single-reeded chanter and 1-3 drones. MP3
  • Säkkipilli: The Finnish bagpipes died out but have been revived since the late 20th century by musicians such as Petri Prauda.

Eastern Europe

  • Volynka (Волинка), (Волынка): It is a Slavic bagpipe. Its etymology comes from the region in which it was most popular - Volyn in Ukraine.
  • Dudy (also known by the German name Bock): Czech bellows-blown bagpipe with a long, crooked drone and chanter that curves up at the end.
  • Cimpoi, the Romanian bagpipe, has a single drone and straight bore chanter and is less strident than its Balkan relatives.
  • Magyar Duda or Hungarian duda (also known as tömlősíp, bőrduda and Croatian duda) has a double chanter (two parallel bores in a single stick of wood, Croatian versions have three or four) with single reeds and a bass drone. It is typical of a large group of pipes played in the Carpathian Basin.

The Balkans

Poland

The generic names for bagpipes in Polish are kozioł (buck), gajdy or koza (goat), sometimes are also wrongly named kobza. They are used in folk music of Podhale, Żywiec Beskids, Cieszyn Silesia and mostly in Greater Poland, where there are known to be four basic variants of bagpipes:

  • Dudy wielkopolskie (Greater Polish bagpipes) with two subtypes: Rawicz-Gostyń and Kościan-Buk
  • Kozioł biały weselny or shortly kozioł biały (white wedding-party buck or simply white buck)
  • Kozioł czarny ślubny or shortly kozioł czarny (black wedding buck or simply black buck)
  • Sierszeńki

In the southern Polish region of Podhale there is one type of dudy called koza or gajdzica.

Southern Europe

Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain)

  • Portuguese and Spanish gaitas: Gaita, gaita-de-fole, gaita de boto, sac de gemecs, gaita de fol and gaita de fuelle is a generic term for "bagpipe" in Spanish, Portuguese, Galego, Asturian, Catalan and Aragonese, for distinct bagpipes used in Galicia (Spain), Asturias (Spain), Cantabria (Spain), Catalonia (Spain), Aragon (Spain) and also Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (Portugal) Estremadura (Portugal), Minho (Portugal) and Beira Litoral (Portugal). Just like "Northumbrian smallpipes" or "Great Highland bagpipes," each country and region attributes its toponym to the respective gaita name: gaita galega (Galicia, Spain), gaita transmontana (Trás-os-Montes, Portugal), gaita asturiana (Asturias, Spain), gaita sanabresa (Sanabria, Spain), sac de gemecs (Catalunya, Spain) gaita de boto (Aragon, Spain) etc. Most of them have a conical chanter with a partial second octave, obtained by overblowing. Folk groups playing these instruments have become popular in recent years, and pipe bands for some models.
  • Sac de gemecs: used in Catalonia (Spain). In Mallorca island, this same bagpipe is called a "Xeremia" and is played in a duet with a Flabiol (one handed whistle) and drum.
  • Galician gaita is a traditional bagpipe used in Galicia and Northern and Central Portugal.

Italy

  • Zampogna: A generic name for an Italian bagpipe, with different scale arrangements for two chanters (for different regions of Italy), and from one to three drones (single drone versions can sound a fifth, in relation to the chanter keynote).
  • Piva, used in northern Italy (Bergamo, Emilia). A single chantered, single drone instrument, with double reeds, often played in accompaniment to a shawm, or piffero. The old Bergamo type is called Baghèt.
  • See also the Launeddas of Sardinia. While not strictly a bagpipe in that it has no bag and is played in the mouth by circular breathing, it is nonetheless a cousin and likely ancestor of the Italian zampogna, in that it has two chanters and a drone, all single reed. They vary, according to the tradition, from about a foot long to almost a meter in length.

Malta

Greece

  • Askomandoura (Greek: ασκομαντούρα): bagpipe used in Crete photo
  • Tsampouna (Greek: τσαμπούνα): Greek Islands bagpipe with a double chanter, no drone and a bag made from an entire goatskin. Pronounced "saw-bow-nah". (Alternately tsambouna, tsabouna, etc.)

Southwest Asia

Anatolia

The Caucasus

The Gulf States

Iran

  • Ney anban (Persian: نی انبان): Persian bagpipe from the south of Iran; bag made from animal skin.

North Africa

  • Zokra (Arabic: زكرة): famous in Libya; bagpipe with a double-chanter terminating in two cow horns.
  • Mizwad (Arabic: مِزْود; plural مَزاود mazāwid): Tunisian bagpipes with a double-chanter terminating in two cow horns.
  • Ghaita (غيطه): a type of bagpipe played in Algeria.

References

External links

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