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United Nations member states

This article lists the member states of the United Nations (UN). There are currently 192 UN member states, and each of them is a member of the United Nations General Assembly.

According to the United Nations Charter, Chapter 2, Article 4:

In principle, only sovereign states can become UN members, and today all UN members are fully sovereign states. However, four of the original members (Belarus, India, the Philippines, and Ukraine) were not independent at the time of their admission. Moreover, because a state can only be admitted by the approval of the Security Council and the General Assembly, some entities which may be considered sovereign states according to the Montevideo Convention are not members due to the fact that the UN do not consider them to be sovereign states, the lack of international recognition or opposition from certain members.

International organizations, non-governmental organizations, and entities whose statehood or sovereignty are not precisely defined, can only become United Nations General Assembly observers by invitation, allowing them to speak, but not vote, in General Assembly meetings.

Current members

The member states are listed below with their respective dates of admission. There were 51 original members of the UN which were admitted in 1945, of which 49 are either still UN members or have their seats continued by a successor state (e.g., the USSR's seat has been continued by Russia). The other two original members were Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, as both had dissolved and their seats were not continued by any state (see Former members: Czechoslovakia and Former members: Yugoslavia respectively). For China's seat in the UN, the Republic of China was replaced by the People's Republic of China on 25 October 1971, even though the governments of both have existed well before and after this date (see Seat of China).

The names used below are the official names of the member states used by the UN; however, the list is sorted by the common names of the member states for ease of navigation. To sort the member states by their official names used by the UN or their dates of admissions, click on the buttons in the column headers.

Background color       indicates original members
Member state Date of admission Notes
19461119 1946-11-19
19551214 1955-12-14
19621008 1962-10-08
19930728 1993-07-28
19761201 1976-12-01
19811111 1981-11-11
19451024 1945-10-24
19920302 1992-03-02 see Former members: USSR
19451101 1945-11-01
19551214 1955-12-14
19920302 1992-03-02 see Former members: USSR
19730918 1973-09-18
19710921 1971-09-21
19740917 1974-09-17
19661209 1966-12-09
19451024 1945-10-24 ; also see Former members: USSR
19451227 1945-12-27
19810925 1981-09-25
19600920 1960-09-20
19710921 1971-09-21
19451114 1945-11-14
19920522 1992-05-22 see Former members: Yugoslavia
19661017 1966-10-17
19451024 1945-10-24
19840921 1984-09-21
19551214 1955-12-14
19600920 1960-09-20
19620918 1962-09-18
19551214 1955-12-14
19600920 1960-09-20
19451109 1945-11-09
19750916 1975-09-16
19600920 1960-09-20
19600920 1960-09-20
19451024 1945-10-24
19451024 1945-10-24 see Seat of China
19451105 1945-11-05
19751112 1975-11-12
19600920 1960-09-20
19600920 1960-09-20
19451102 1945-11-02
19600920 1960-09-20
19920522 1992-05-22 see Former members: Yugoslavia
19451024 1945-10-24
19600920 1960-09-20
19930119 1993-01-19 see Former members: Czechoslovakia
19451024 1945-10-24
19770920 1977-09-20
19781218 1978-12-18
19451024 1945-10-24
19451221 1945-12-21
19451024 1945-10-24 see Former members: United Arab Republic
19451024 1945-10-24
19681112 1968-11-12
19930528 1993-05-28
19910917 1991-09-17 see Former members: USSR
19451113 1945-11-13
19701013 1970-10-13
19551214 1955-12-14
19451024 1945-10-24
19600920 1960-09-20
19650921 1965-09-21
19920731 1992-07-31 see Former members: USSR
19730918 1973-09-18 see Former members: East Germany and West Germany
19570308 1957-03-08
19451025 1945-10-25
19740917 1974-09-17
19451121 1945-11-21
19581212 1958-12-12
19740917 1974-09-17
19660920 1966-09-20
19451024 1945-10-24
19451217 1945-12-17
19551214 1955-12-14
19461119 1946-11-19
19451030 1945-10-30
19500928 1950-09-28
19451024 1945-10-24
19451221 1945-12-21
19551214 1955-12-14
19490511 1949-05-11
19551214 1955-12-14
19620918 1962-09-18
19561218 1956-12-18
19551214 1955-12-14
19920302 1992-03-02 see Former members: USSR
19631216 1963-12-16
19990914 1999-09-14
19910917 1991-09-17
19910917 1991-09-17
19630514 1963-05-14
19920302 1992-03-02 see Former members: USSR
19551214 1955-12-14
19910917 1991-09-17 see Former members: USSR
19451024 1945-10-24
19661017 1966-10-17
19451102 1945-11-02
19551214 1955-12-14
19900918 1990-09-18
19910917 1991-09-17 see Former members: USSR
19451024 1945-10-24
19930408 1993-04-08 ; also see Former members: Yugoslavia
19600920 1960-09-20
19641201 1964-12-01
19570917 1957-09-17
19650921 1965-09-21
19600928 1960-09-28
19641201 1964-12-01
19910917 1991-09-17
19611027 1961-10-27
19680424 1968-04-24
19451107 1945-11-07
19910917 1991-09-17
19920302 1992-03-02 see Former members: USSR
19930528 1993-05-28
19611027 1961-10-27
20060628 2006-06-28 see Former members: Yugoslavia
19561112 1956-11-12
19750916 1975-09-16
19480419 1948-04-19
19900423 1990-04-23
19990914 1999-09-14
19551214 1955-12-14
19451210 1945-12-10
19451024 1945-10-24
19451024 1945-10-24
19600920 1960-09-20
19601007 1960-10-07
19451127 1945-11-27
19711007 1971-10-07
19470930 1947-09-30
19941215 1994-12-15
19451113 1945-11-13
19751010 1975-10-10
19451024 1945-10-24
19451031 1945-10-31
19451024 1945-10-24
19451024 1945-10-24
19551214 1955-12-14
19710921 1971-09-21
19551214 1955-12-14
19451024 1945-10-24 see Former members: USSR
19620918 1962-09-18
19830923 1983-09-23
19790918 1979-09-18
19800916 1980-09-16
19761215 1976-12-15
19920302 1992-03-02
19750916 1975-09-16
19451024 1945-10-24
19600928 1960-09-28
20001101 2000-11-01 see Former members: Yugoslavia
19760921 1976-09-21
19610927 1961-09-27
19650921 1965-09-21
19930119 1993-01-19 see Former members: Czechoslovakia
19920522 1992-05-22 see Former members: Yugoslavia
19780919 1978-09-19
19600920 1960-09-20
19451107 1945-11-07
19551214 1955-12-14
19551214 1955-12-14
19561112 1956-11-12
19751204 1975-12-04
19680924 1968-09-24
19461119 1946-11-19
20020910 2002-09-10
19451024 1945-10-24 ; also see Former members: United Arab Republic
19920302 1992-03-02 see Former members: USSR
19611214 1961-12-14 see Former members: Tanganyika and Zanzibar
19461216 1946-12-16
20020927 2002-09-27
19600920 1960-09-20
19990914 1999-09-14
19620918 1962-09-18
19561112 1956-11-12
19451024 1945-10-24
19920302 1992-03-02 see Former members: USSR
20000905 2000-09-05
19621025 1962-10-25
19451024 1945-10-24 ; also see Former members: USSR
19711209 1971-12-09
19451024 1945-10-24
19451024 1945-10-24
19451218 1945-12-18
19920302 1992-03-02 see Former members: USSR
19810915 1981-09-15
19451115 1945-11-15
19770920 1977-09-20
19470930 1947-09-30 see Former members: North Yemen and South Yemen
19641201 1964-12-01
19800825 1980-08-25

Former members

Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945. On 10 December 1992, Czechoslovakia informed the United Nations Secretary-General that it would cease to exist after 31 December 1992, and that both its successor states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, would apply for UN membership. They were admitted on 19 January 1993.

East Germany and West Germany

Both the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) and the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) were admitted on 18 September 1973. Germany was reunified when the German Democratic Republic acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.

North Yemen and South Yemen

Yemen (North Yemen) was admitted on 30 September 1947, and Democratic Yemen (South Yemen) was originally admitted as Southern Yemen on 14 December 1967, before changing its name in 1970. Yemen was unified when the Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen) merged to form the Republic of Yemen on 22 May 1990.

Tanganyika and Zanzibar

Tanganyika was admitted on 14 December 1961, and Zanzibar was admitted on 16 December 1963. Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar on 26 April 1964, which later changed its name to the United Republic of Tanzania on 1 November 1964.

United Arab Republic

Both Egypt and Syria joined the UN as original members on 24 October 1945. The United Arab Republic was formed by a union of Egypt and Syria following a plebiscite on 21 February 1958, and continued as a single member in the UN until 13 October 1961, when Syria, having resumed its status as an independent state, resumed its separate membership in the UN. Egypt continued as a UN member under the name United Arab Republic until 2 September 1971, when it changed its name to the Arab Republic of Egypt.

USSR

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, and joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945. On 24 December 1991, upon the imminent dissolution of the USSR, Boris Yeltsin, the President of Russia, informed the United Nations Secretary-General that the membership of the USSR in the UN (including its permanent seat on the Security Council) was being continued by the Russian Federation with the support of the 11 member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

The remaining former Soviet Republics are currently all UN members:

Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945. By 1992, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had been formally dissolved, and a new state, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, was formed on 28 April 1992 by the former Yugoslav Republics of Serbia and Montenegro. By United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/47/1 on 22 September 1992, the UN "considers that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) cannot continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations, and therefore decides that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) should apply for membership in the United Nations and that it shall not participate in the work of the General Assembly.

The former Yugoslav Republics are currently all UN members:

(Kosovo, which unilaterally declared independence from Serbia and is , is not expected to be admitted to the UN in the near future due to the resistance of Russia and China to recognizing Kosovo, as admission to the UN requires approval from the Security Council, and the two countries, as permanent members of the Security Council, have veto power.)

Seat of China

China is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, and joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945, represented by the government of the Republic of China (ROC). However, as a result of the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang-led ROC government relocated to Taiwan in 1949, with the Communist Party-led government of the People's Republic of China (PRC), declared on 1 October 1949, taking control of mainland China. Representatives of the ROC government continued to represent China at the UN, despite the small size of the ROC's jurisdiction of Taiwan and a number of smaller islands compared to the PRC's jurisdiction of mainland China, until 25 October 1971, when United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 was passed, recognizing that "the representatives of the People's Republic of China are the only lawful representatives of China to the United Nations", and expelling "the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek from the place which they unlawfully occupy at the United Nations and in all the organizations related to it". This effectively transferred the seat of China in the UN (including its permanent seat on the Security Council) from the ROC to the PRC.

Recent bids for membership by the Republic of China (Taiwan)

Since 1993, the ROC has repeatedly petitioned to rejoin the UN as the representative of the people of Taiwan only, instead of all of China, using the designation "Republic of China on Taiwan", "Republic of China (Taiwan)", or just "Taiwan" (as proposed by the Democratic Progressive Party-led government). However, all attempts have been denied, either because the petition failed to get sufficient votes to get on the formal agenda, or because the application was rejected by the UN, due primarily to the opposition of the PRC.

In July 2007, the Chen Shui-bian-led ROC government submitted the ROC's 15th application to join the UN, and its first under the name "Taiwan", but its application was rejected by the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs, citing General Assembly Resolution 2758. Responding to the application, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon stated that:

Responding to the UN's rejection of its application, the ROC government has stated that Taiwan is not now nor has it ever been under the jurisdiction of the PRC, and that since General Assembly Resolution 2758 did not clarify the issue of Taiwan's representation in the UN, it does not prevent Taiwan's participation in the UN as an independent sovereign nation. The ROC government, as well as several international newspapers such as the Wall Street Journal, also criticized Ban for returning the application without passing it to the Security Council or the General Assembly, contrary to UN's standard procedure (Provisional Rules of Procedure of the Security Council, Chapter X, Rule 59), and for asserting that Taiwan is part of China. On the other hand, the PRC government, which has stated that Taiwan is part of China, praised that UN's decision "was made in accordance with the UN Charter and Resolution 2758 of the UN General Assembly, and showed the UN and its member states' universal adherence to the one-China principle. While the PRC government firmly opposes the application of any Taiwan authorities to join the UN or any of its agencies (e.g., WHO), either as a member or an observer, the ROC government continues to call on the international community to recognize the right of the island's 23 million citizens to participate in the meetings and activities of the UN and its affiliates. Presently, the ROC is , including the Holy See.

Observers and non-members

In addition to the member states listed above, there is one non-member observer state, the Holy See (which holds sovereignty over the state of Vatican City). It has been a permanent observer state since 6 April 1964, and gained all the rights of full membership except voting on 1 July 2004. Non-member observer states are recognized as sovereign entities, and are free to submit a petition to join as a full member at their discretion. For example, Switzerland was also a permanent observer state from 1948 to 2002, until becoming a full member on 10 September 2002.

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was granted observer status on 22 November 1974. After the proclaimed declaration of the State of Palestine by the PLO, its designation in the UN was changed to Palestine on 15 December 1988. Palestine's status in the UN is a "non-member entity".

The sovereignty status of Western Sahara is in dispute between Morocco and the Polisario Front. Most of the territory is administered by Morocco, the remainder (the Free Zone) by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), proclaimed by the Polisario Front. The SADR is neither a member nor an observer of the UN, and Western Sahara is listed by the UN as a "non-self-governing territory".

The Cook Islands and Niue, which are both associated states of New Zealand, are neither members nor observers of the UN, but are members of UN agencies such as WHO and UNESCO, and signatories of international treaties such as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. While self-governing in their domestic affairs, most of their foreign affairs are represented by New Zealand on their behalf. They are recognized by the UN as "non-member states".

Notes

See also

External links

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