Ufa (Уфа́; Өфө, Öfö; ; Ӗпхӳ, Ephü) is the capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia. Population: 1,036,026 (2005 est.); 1,042,437 (2002 Census).
Ufa is one of the industrial centres in the Western Urals
area, and is situated at the confluence
of the Belaya
and the Ufa Rivers
. Industries include electrical and mining equipment, oil refining, petrochemicals
, synthetic rubber, and processed foods. The Ufa Airport
connects the city to several towns in Russia, as well as to Armenia
. There is also the smaller Ufa Maximovka Airport
northeast of the city.
The city began as a fortress built on the orders of Ivan IV
in 1574, and originally bore the name of the hill it stood on, Tura-Tau
. The city began to be called Ufa
, meaning "small" in Turkic
, by locals and the name stuck. In 1802, Ufa became the principal city of Bashkiria.
In 1918, Ufa was the residence of the Provisional All-Russian Government.
Educational institutions include Bashkir State University, Bashkir State Teachers Training University named after M.Akmulla, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, Ufa Architectural University, Ufa Agricultural University, and others.
Famous natives of Ufa include Vladimir Spivakov, singer Vlad Kaplan, rebel Salawat Yulayev, the Muslim Bolshevik Mirsaid Sultangaliev, the painter Mikhail Nesterov, dancer Rudolf Nureyev, pianist Vera Timanova, NHL ice hockey players Andrei Zyuzin Alexander Semak and Igor Kravchuk, rock singer Zemfira. Navigator Valerian Albanov of ill-fated Arctic ship St. Anna, as well as rock singer Yuri Shevchuk and his band DDT were Ufa residents for some time.
There are some important enterprises in Ufa:
- UMPO (ОАО «Уфимское моторостроительное производственное объединение») (main products:air jet)
- JPC Bashneft (ОАО «АНК «Башнефть»»)
- UFNC (Ufaneftekhim) (ОАО «Уфанефтехим») (petrochemical)