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Economy of Manchukuo

This article looks at non-industrial and industrial sectors of the economies of Manchukuo and Mengjiang, in the period 1931-1945.

Official government control of economy

The General Affairs State Council was the body that retained Japanese control of official economic policy. The Central Bank of Manchou was the national central banking institution. The Kwantung Army held the highest authority and represented the Emperor of Japan, and the respective ministries of the nominal Manchoukou central government were also involved.

Agriculture

The effective annexation in 1931 of the Manchukuo territory by Japan gave it an area suitable for arable farming, such as scarcely existed in metropolitan Japan, or other generally mountainous parts of the Empire of Japan. The country was primarily agricultural in character, although with some urbanization. Farm products in Manchukuo included soy beans, millet, wheat, rye, and rice. The south plains are fertile.

Forestry products

Lumber and the wood industry were important in Manchukuo. In the Jehol and Kirin provinces are found great expanses of various types of forest. From 1911 to 1931 Chinese lumberjacks began to work there; during the Manchu imperial times the total volume of cut wood was some 2,500,000,000 cubic meters. Forest exploitation took place mostly in the Yalu and Sungari river areas; their tributaries permitted transport by river to woodworking centers in Andong, Kirin and Harbin cities. The Tumen and other northern rivers also provided transport. The normal production before 1939 was 4 million cubic meters per year. Uses were: railroad ties, cellulose paste for paper and for Karafuto rayon production, and export to Japan, Russia and Central and Northern China. A similar pattern may have occurred in Mengjiang.

Hunting

In the mountains there are many species of animals which can be hunted for their skins, for meat, or for sport. This area corresponds with the current Heilongjiang province. The situation is similar in Mengjiang too.

Coastal, river and lake fishing

The rivers Amur, Sungari, Nonni, Mutang-Kiang, Ussuri, Liao, Yalu and Tumen, and the lakes Khanka, Buir-Nor and Hulun-Nor are all important sources of fish. Those include trout, salmon, and European perch. With the exception of the Buir-Nor and Hulun-Nor lakes, these can be used only in months when they are free of snow. The latter lakes are useful fish sources for residents in Xing'an Province near the Russian-Mongolia frontier area, and were a cause of frontier disputes.

The annual catch in rivers and lakes was 25,000 tonnes. Sea fishing was in the Po-Hai Gulf and Yellow Sea areas. It included codfish, shrimp, sea bream, lobster, and crab.

Agriculture in Manchukuo and Mengjiang

Spring Wheat Region

  • Precipitation: 25 in (635 mm)
  • Growing season in days: 196
  • Land cultivated: 22,054 mile² (57,120 km²)
  • Total percentage of cultivated land: 13-18%
  • Total percentage of arrended peasants: 6%
  • Cultivated area per farm: 7.3 acres (30,000 m²)
  • Peasant population density in principal farming: 858/mile² (331/km²)

Product by sector

  • Wheat: 18%
  • Maize: 34%
  • Irish potatoes: 10%

Livestock

  • Oxen: 21%
  • Donkeys: 15%
  • Sheep: 28%
  • Mule: 11%

Means of transport

  • Beasts of burden: 76%
  • Carts: 38%
  • River boats: 13%

Fruits products

  • Nuts and pears

Soy bean and Kaoliang Manchu Region

  • Precipitation: 25 in (635 mm)
  • Growing Epochs for days: 150
  • Land cultivated: 50,000 mile² (130,000 km²)
  • Total percentage of cultivated land: 5 to 20%
  • Total percentage of arrended peasants: ?
  • cultivated surface per farm: 8.0 acres (32,000 m²)
  • peasant population density in principal farming: 800/mile² (309/km²)

Percentages and distribution surface of products

  • Wheat: 10%
  • Maize: 15%
  • Soy bean: 10%
  • Kaoliang: 25%

Fruits and typical products

  • Pears

Land cultivated in both areas

Manchukuo

(per provinces):

  • Heilungkiang:

-Percentage total of land cultivated: 5.2% -Land cultivated per person: 1.84 acres (7,450 m²)

  • Kirin:

-Percentage total of land cultivated: 14.4% -Land cultivated per person: 1.19 acres (4,820 m²)

  • Liaoning:

-Percentage total of land cultivated: 16.8% -Land cultivated per person: 0.76 acres (3,080 m²)

  • Jehol:

-Percentage total of land cultivated: 6.1% -Land cultivated per person: 0.83 acres (3,360 m²)

Meng Chiang

(per provinces):

  • Chahar:

-Percentage total of land cultivated: 4.1% -Land cultivated per person: 1.30 acres (5,260 m²)

  • Suiyuan:

-Percentage total of land cultivated: 3.7% -Land cultivated per person: 1.40 acres (5,670 m²)

Total yields of products

In bushels per acre, except cotton in kilograms.

China---Japan---India---Soviet Union---USA

  • Rice: 67 68 29 -- 47
  • Wheat: 16 25 11 10 14
  • Corn: 21 22 15 15 25
  • Maize: 19 36 -- 16 22
  • Irish Potato: 87 139 -- 128 108
  • Cotton Packs: 168 199 80 188 177

In Chientao or Yenki Manchu district the Korean Colony dedicated to extensive cultivation rice too.

Additional data on Manchukuo agriculture

In Manchukuo the cultivable land was estimated as 300,000 square kilometres, principally in the central plain. Agriculture employed 85% of the total population. The farming more extend are Kaoliang (70%), others are Corn and maize (70%), Wheat (80%) and overall Soybean (35%). Manchus farms practiced the rotation of crops more frequently with primitive culture methods. Before at WWII the total production of farmings are: 4,800,000 tonnes of Kaoliang, 4,600,000 tonnes of Soybean,1,000,000 of tonnes of wheat, 3,000,000 of tonnes of Corn and 3,900,000 tonnes of maize. In 1940 the production grew with others farms to: 650,000 tonnes of rice, 1,370,000 tonnes of rye, oats, barley, Sarracein wheat, and 377,000 tonnes of legumes and pulses.

Other products produced in quantity were: tobacco, hemp, cotton, peanuts, lupulus, sesame, sugar beet, indigo, opium (for special uses), Apples, pears, peaches, apricots, nuts, chestnuts, forage, alfalfa, onions, garlic, sweet potatoes, col, cucumber, giant radish, thyme, ricine, etc. In Amur land (Manchu side) much honey (1,800 tonnes) was collected.

In Manchukuo Japanese experts installing an industry to use the Soybeans, with average production of 1,50,000 tonnes, of which half was exported to Europe, and the crude oil paste for fertilizer and soybeans for food sent to Japan. The rest of plant are use in Cellulose factories.

From the Kaoliang and Corn liquors were made, joining the local Vodka, Sake, Beers, soybean juices and vinegar. The modern wheat and flour industry was located in Harbin from Russian times apart of basic mills in other areas.

Harvests in Manchukuo and Meng Chiang

Manchukuo was a great harvestry, with many domestic animals in houses or great properties. The Japanese experts made great efforts to increase production with the introduction of good foreign species. Pigs, cattle, sheep, etc produced milk, meat, leather. From sheep was obtained more wool, and for transport of the harvest oxen, donkeys, heavy horses, etc were used. In Hsingan province were horses and Bactrian camels, and Heilungkiang and Kirin provinces used snow dogs to aid transport.

Other interesting products in Manchukuo were the silkworm and the wild silk or tussah (tussor) Worm. The first needed the white mulberry for food; and the second needed the Quercus Mongolica and other species of oak tree to make their Tussah silk. Both products were collected by the Japanese for dyeing and export to Europe and America or sent as raw material to these markets. The worms in cocoon were sent to China and Japan. The production of Tussah Silk or pongee was in Kaiping and Antung (Liaoning Province) and the Silk Worm stayed in Kwantung (Kantoshu) and South Manchurian Railway zone, and Chosen.

Others Japanese analyses of Manchu agriculture

The more complete farming development occurred in one zone of 150 to 250 km of length, extend from the Liaotung Gulf to Northwest. In 1934 if calculated a total of between 120,000 and 160,000 km². The respective quantities of the principal crops in 1934 were:

  • Soybean: 28%
  • Corn: 9%
  • Other legumes: 2%
  • Wheat: 7%
  • Kaoliang:(Zahine-Sorgum): 23%
  • Rice: 2%
  • Mice: 18%
  • Other crops: 11%

Soybeans

The principal crop in the land. The first exports were made in 1908 to England. The economic expansion of soybean is attributed in great part to the South Manchurian Railway Company, which invested large funds in its development and its direct export from Dairen abroad, in particular to China and Japan proper. In Manchukuo there were many types of processing mill. In 1933 to 1934 having an important reduction of more than 4,000 square kilometres in cultivated extent and production fell from 4-6 millions to 3.84 million tonnes.

Cotton

If precise giving more push to Cotton crop. Regularly it produced 120,000 kilograms of mediocre quality and estimated why are needed ones 90,000 tonnes for obtain benefits.

Opium

It is complicated to explain and evaluate the importance of the opium poppy, grown to obtain opium. In November 1932 there was an organized state monopoly, with the Mitsui Zaibatsu conglomerate, for farming this product with "declared intention" of reducing its heavy local use. Fixed cultivation areas were set up in Jehol and northwest Kirin. For 1934-35 its cultivation area was evaluated as 480 square kilometres, with a yield of 1.1 t/km². There was much illegal growing, and its high profitability retarded the effective suppression of this dangerous drug. "Nikisansuke", a secret Japanese merchant group, participated.

This group was formed by:

The monopoly generated profits of twenty to thirty million yen per year, financing the industrial development of Manchukuo.

The military prohibited the use of opium and other narcotics by its troops (the punishment for their use was loss of Japanese citizenship) but allowed it to be used as a "demoralization weapon" against "inferior races".

One of the participants, Naoki Hoshino negotiated a large loan from Japanese banks using a lien on the profits of Manchukuo's Opium Monopoly Bureau as collateral. Another authority states that the annual revenue from the narcotic policy in China, including Manchukuo, was estimated by the Japanese military at 300 million yen a year.

Similar policies were seen across Japanese-occupied Asia.

Finances

In foods produced in its vast fertile plains, its rich mineral resources, its immense forest reserves, its great fisheries, its important and modern developed industry, its most important port, Dairen, which had a high level of exports and was a free port zone for world commerce, and its financial resources managed for the Central Bank of Manchou, its central bank, Manchukuo was a region of abundant natural resources.

Before 1932, the economic situation was chaotic, but the establishment of the Yuan of Manchukuo as the local monetary unit, the parity with the Japanese Yen, and establishment of the Central Bank of Manchou as the central bank institution gave certain stability and a relatively stable business climate.

Exports and commerce

In 1925 the exports were mostly grain (88%); the rest (10%) was wood cut in the forests.

In 1939 the foreign trade of Manchukuo rose to 2,650,840,000 million Manchukuo Yuan. Japan ranked first, but other trading partners included the United States, China, and Germany.

Industry

Prior to Japanese intervention, the sole industry was the Mukden Arsenal, property of Chang Hsueh-liang (son of Chang Tso-Lin), the Manchu Dictator. However, the Japanese established various types of factories and developed industries, mining products from Fushun Pehnshiu and Fusin, establishing locomotive and railway industries for manufacturing and repairing railway machinery, locomotives, etc. in Kantoshu (Kwantung), during the Manchukuo Empire period. During 1937 the Japanese Government with the Japanese Army commissioned the industrialist Yoshisuke Aikawa to organize and direct the Manchuria Industrial Development Company with a capital of 758,000,000 yen, in other words the "Manchoukuoan Zaibatsu Empire" after much difficulty and guided in centralizing the local mining and heavy industry. These government empires organized and implemented two five-year plans during the 1930s (reminiscent of Soviet Five-Year Plans too) with the aid of Naoki Hoshino. These five-year plans contributed to pushing the industrial development quickly into form. The heavy industry provided materials for construction, machinery, tools, tool machines, locomotives, small vessels, airplanes, automobiles and trucks, hand and heavy weapons and munitions for the Japanese and Manchu armies, candies and foods, cement, liquor and beer, bread and flour, synthetic gasoline and shared oils, tar, vegetable and synthetic oils, electric devices, mining equipment, etc. In 1945 Japan totalled its monetary investments in land as 11,000,000,000 Yen (5,5,000,000,000 U.S.Dollars) On the other hand, Manchoukou received from Japan certain quantities of scrap iron for iron and steel processing and at same time export unfinished products, coal (processed or raw), iron-derived steel products, etc. Other Manchuokuan products were rudimentary and modern farming equipment, industrial paint, boots, rubber articles, processed leather products, milk and cheese, carpets, glass, blankets, colours, dyes and inks, bricks, industrial paper and raw cellulose, fabrics, etc. These last areas are covered for local production of many tailors and hilanders, and overall modern textile factories with imported cotton. There were 500,000 spindles and fabric factories which annually produced 25,000 tonnes of cotton fabrics. Joining this industry was the dye and coloring industry.

Some Cyphers of Manchu Industrial Production (1932-35):

  • Coal production: 15 Million metric tonnes of Coke Coal
  • Cement Production: 10% of Japanese Cement production
  • Steel Production: 450,000 metric tonnes

When the Russians arrived in Manchukuo, much of this plant and factories was sent to the Soviet Far East and Siberia for a value of 858,000,000 U.S. dollars (100,000 Spanish pesetas), but the Russians took only the most modern industrial equipment, laboratories, hospitals, etc., destroying the ancient machines for theirs. They took electric power plants, mining equipment, machine tools, and other items, but the last models only during 1945-47.

Important Cities

The most important cities were:

  • Shengyang (Mukden): 339,000 inhabitants
  • Dairen (Dalny): 203,000 or 555,562 or 661,000 or 766,000 or 400,000 residents.
  • Port Arthur (Ryujon or Lushun): 1,371,000 inhabitants
  • Harbin (Karbin): 250,000 or 405,000 residents
  • Antung (Tang-Tung): 92,000,315,242 or 360,000 inhabitants
  • Hsinking (Changchung): 126,000 or 544,202 residents
  • Kirin (Chilin): 119,000,173,624 or 512,000 residents
  • Tsitsihar (Lungkiang): 75,000 or 537,000 inhabitants
  • Fushum: 269,919 or 754,000 residents
  • Anshan: 213,865 or 100,000 inhabitants
  • Newchwang (Yingkow): 119,000 or 158,000 residents
  • Mutang-Kiang: 100,000 inhabitants
  • Kiamuzse (Chamussi): 100,000 residents
  • Liaoyang: 100,000 inhabitants
  • Penki (Chientao): 530,000 inhabitants
  • Hailar (Hulun):

Another table mentioned this:

  • Hsinking (Changchung): 415,000 residents.
  • Shengyang (Mukden): 863,000 inhabitants
  • Lushun (Dairen): 550,000 residents.

Roads and other transport

During Japanese administration, they constructed 6,500 km of roads. By Japanese initiative they founded a local airline which linked airports in Dairen Mukden, Harbin, and other points, with a hub in Hsinking. The Amur, Nonni,Yalu Liao and Sungari rivers served as river ways for use of regular cabotage boats and transport vessels in West and Northwest, Hsingan Province commonly used camels in local commerce routes between this land to Meng Chiang and Soviet exterior Mongolia. The principal railway lines (some 12,000 km) are the East Chinese Railway, constructed for Russians and expanded by the Japanese, and Peking-Mukden railway with Railway Centers in Mukden and Harbin.

The South Manchurian Railway Company compared with the Canadian Pacific Railway in Canada in being much more than a railway company. In 1931 they invested, representing the Japanese Government, 27% of capital in mining (coal deposits of Fushum), 3% in Iron & Steel investments (Anshan iron factory), 8% in Ports (Dairen and Ryoujun ports in Kantoshu), with other minor inversions (the Yamato Hotel, Tuitsuike Hotel in Tangkatzu spa, merchant and fishing vessels, electricity powerplants, local institutions, schools, research institutes for farming, geology, and mining, sanitation and medical, public services, public architecture, etc.). Much of these stayed in the Japanese government's hands and the rest was held by private Japanese, Chinese, and Manchu local investors.

In 1935 there were 8,500 km of active railways, of which 80% were classified as "State railways", 1,100 km were owned by the private company Manchuria Railway, and the other 1,760 km belonged to North Manchuria Railway (before East Chinese Railway of Russian propriety). In 1932 if cominzed the construction of 60,000 km of roads in ten years, in last two years having completed only 7,000 km (case of Kirin-HsinkingWay for example), the principal motive being to promote regular autobus public transports.

The important commercial ports are Antung, Yingkow, Hulutao; but the most great and poses more importance are Ryojun and Dairen. Manchoukou uses in Japan Sea area, the Chosen Ports of Yuki, Rashin and Seishin too.

Mining

During 1925 the South Manchurian Railway Company invested in opening the Coal deposits in Chalai Nor at 25 km of frontier station of Manchouli which extracted 290,000 metric tonnes.

The most important mining products in country are coal and iron. The mines in Taku Shanare of one richest mines in area, more near at Anshan industrial iron center. The total reserves of iron in Shan Pai Shang Mountains (included at Taku Shang too) are estimated to be 870,000,000 and 3,100,000,000 metric tonnes with metal content of 1,290,000,000 metric tonnes. These deposits were recent discoveries for Japanese geologists. In Fushum at 32 km of Mukden, is a bituminouscoal reserve of 700,000,000 and 1,000,000,000 of metric tonnes which exploded in open-cast, or regular mining methods. In same deposits exist one coal philon of 127 m, one of more spese of the world. The total bituminous coal reserves of Manchukuo are estimated at 3,000,000,000 metric tonnes, most of this is found in Liaoning area and the rest in Kirin, Heilungkiang, Hsingam, and Jehol provinces. On the other hand, the anthracite coal reserves are 200,000,000 metric tonnes and lignite are 50,500,000 metric tonnes. In Fushum and Fusin exist extensive deposits of Petrol Slate and Petrol Squists to extract Petrol Oil. Abundant gold deposits exist in the Greater Khingan Mountains and Amur River, other minerals in the country are: silver, calize, tungsten, sulphur, bauxite, magnesite, tin, lead, lime, soda, pyrite, zinc, copper, asbestos, marble, etc.

Petroleum

There are no great reserves of petroleum except at Fushum and Fusin where there were extensive deposits of Petrol Slate and Petrol Squists from which to extract Petrol Oil. In Jehol exist little sources of same minerals to obtain petrol too.

Electric power

Japanese approved the great energy potentially why poses Manchu rivers during your period. Examples of this are the installations of electric power plants in Sungari river and Yalufor produced electric energy for your enormous industrial manchu structures. theirs protected constructs other powerplants in Nonni and Liao river when occurred the Soviet Invasion during August 1945. Additionally, there was other gas oil, bunker or coal powerplants installations innation for industrial uses too.

Natural gas

As in Japan, in Manchukuo there are no sources of natural gas, but the Japanese built installations to produce artificial gas for industrial uses in gasification plants in the country during these time.

Nuclear Energy

At this time only existed wartime rumors about the Japanese Army Atomic Bomb Project "Mishina Project" during last stages of war realizing certain experiments and suppose test-firing evaluations in East Gobi Desert in Hsingan Province with support of special groups of Unit 731.

Summary

If others tables and analizes why demonstrated the enormous interest why poses Japan over Manchoukouan resources since your intervention and your determined purpose of use in your local benefit. theirs debt to employed much time and resources to develop this and can to possibly if in future obtain some benefits of these develop but these plans are stopped definitively with Soviet Invasion in August 1945.

Japanese investment

After the effective Japanese annexation of 1931, a colonialist system was put in place (see Manchukuo (administration)). This system was characterized, amongst other factors, by a high degree of capital investment in heavy industry, and to a lesser extent, agriculture.

Introduction

Japanese investment (private and central government) ran at ¥1,715,000,000 (£171,580.000 sterling) in 1938. In 1941, ¥5,000,000,000 was reinvested – the equivalent of $2 for every person in China. For local and foreign commerce, Japan organized a centralized economic structure, a national central bank and a local currency, the yuan of Manchukuo.

During the early years of Japanese administration, Manchukuo represented 14.3% of total industrial production in China – 12% of its industrial work force. From 1913 to 1930, its farming production grew by 70%; its railways represented 30% of all Chinese railways.

The first industrial centers in Manchukuo were in the Mukden-Dairen area with coal, iron, chemical and soy bean products, railway equipment, weapons, aircraft, liquor and beer, processed foods, oil, petrol refining, etc. The Japanese invested ¥440,000,000 (£44,000,000) of capital. The Manchu exterior commerce (a Japanese monopoly) in 1933, the exports exceeded imports. One-half to two-thirds of the investment was reserved for Soy Bean products. Coal represented 10% and iron a greater amount. Minor exports were other farming products (pigs, mice, kaoliang, peanuts); imports were cotton, flour of various grains, iron, and unfinished and manufactured products for Industry. The principal commerce was with China and Japan, with some exports going to Russia. Other tables of exports from 1923 indicated a total of 4,423,000 tonnes, 50% soy beans and 30% coal.

One question raised about Manchukuo is how one industrial potential became more advanced than all the others existent in East Asia (with the exception of proper Japan and the U.S.S.R.) and, at the same time, integrated this economy with Japanese finances and industry for their own interests. At Manchukuo, other foreign businessmen mentioned how "Japanchukuo" for the Japanese extended control in all Manchoukouan aspects. This introduces the classical colonial structure, where all important technical and administrative personnel are Japanese. This industrial structure produced prime material or unfinished products for finalizing the process in metropolitan islands.

In 1929 there was a slump in soy bean sales to the United States, but Germany became the principal buyer.

Industrial centers were in Anshan, Shakakon, Dairen, Ryojun, Fushun, Fusin, and other cities. Manchukuo used the Chosen ports of Yuki, Seishin and Rashin as exportation doors for the Japan sea area.

Investments were made in the Dowa Automobile Company (for the manufacture of cars and trucks), Manshukoku Hikoki Seizo KK (for making engines and aircraft) in Harbin, Jintan Candy & Foods Company, Mukden Arsenal of Nambu Co. in Mukden, Anshan Iron & Steel Works (founded in 1913) and renamed Showa Steel Works (in 1933) in Anshan, Manshukoku Koku KK (Manchurian National Airways), Central Bank of Manchou (national central bank), South Manchurian Railway Company, Yamato Hotel, Tuitsuike Hotel in Tangkantzu lake, and others.

Mineral extractions in Manchukuo

Coal

The principal coal deposit is at Fushun, in Yingpan, extending 15 x 3 kilometers. A reserve of 1,000,000,000 tonnes is estimated. Production during 1907–1908 remained under 2,000,000 tonnes. In 1919–1920 the extractions increased to 3,700,000 tonnes. Later in 1924–1929 they increased production to 5,540,000 tonnes. During 1934, production continued growing to 8,000,000 tonnes. Both local use and exports increased.

In 1934–1936 the total coal extractions were:

  • Heilungkiang: 405,000 tonnes
  • Jehol: 458,000 tonnes
  • Kirin: 267,000 tonnes
  • Liaoning: 10,656,000 tonnes

The next deposits are in Yentai. In 1923–1924, 1,000,000 tonnes were in production. The private mines were in Penhsihu and Hsintai. The total coal production in Manchukuo during 1930 exceeded 10,000,000 tonnes. Other important mines in the nation are Sian (in Liaoning province), Muleng (in Kirin province) and Peopiao (in Jehol Province). In 1941, they produced 20,000,000 tonnes with reserves of 20,000,000,000 tonnes.

Coal Production was calculated in accord with other sources,in 1932 ones reserves of 4,5 Million of tonnes,later in 1944 was augmented to 20,000 million of tonnes.

Petroleum

In Manchukuo, petrol was only extracted for the distillation process of Petrol squist and oil shale (mineral). In Fushun, 1,000,000 tonnes were produced in 1941. In Jehol some petrol was extracted in conjunction with coal deposits.

Iron

The iron extraction between 1931–1932 was 1,000,000 tonnes from deposits in Taku Shan (near at Anshan, Liaoning), Miaoerkow and Tungpientao (in Liaoning too). In 1934, 950,000 tonnes of low-grade Hematite (Iron ore) was first produced, and the Miaoerkow mine also produced 235,000 tonnes of the same mineral. In the Tungpientao deposits, the reserves are 1,000,000,000 tonnes of high-grade Iron.

In 1934, the total iron extractions were:

  • Liaoning Province:
    • Anshan: 950,000 tonnes (low-grade)
    • Miaoerkow: 235,000 tonnes (low-grade)

Reserves:

  • Tungpientao: 100,000,000 tonnes (high-grade)

According to American Geologist Forster Payne, 70% of Iron sources of East Asia in coastal region of Manchuria, with reserves calculated in 1944 of 2,000 to 2,500 Tonnes against 721 Million of Tonnes in Germany. Such ores had 60% iron; still more aboundant were found neart Anshan, at south of Mukden, with a median 40% of Iron Content.

The "Special Report of Geological Survey of China" (1945) mentioned the Japanese extraction of iron in Manchuria and occupied China grew from 101,000 tonnes to 175,000 tonnes or in other terms such production was increased in middle generation was multiplied by 173%.

Aluminium

The principal sources of bauxite in Manchukuo are the alunite (Bauxite source) deposits in Liaoning.

if signed the new sources of Bauxite and Alunite in Yentai, Penshiu, Ninshintai, Saoshin, with reserves of 25,3 Million of Metric Tonnes with metallic content of 55%. Later another 120 Million Tonnes was discovered. For this since 1932 the "Mantetsu" (South Manchurian Railway Company) and Anshan Iron Steel Works organized laboratories in Fushun and Tokyo to analyze rationally processes to exploit such abundant mineral sources. In 1936-38 they founded the "Manchu Society for light Metals". Zaibatsu specialized in exploitation of these sources with electric energy provided by Fushun Coals and Hydrochloric Acid, Potassium Chloride and Silica Iron. During 1938-42 aluminum production was increased by 5,000 to 30,000 tonnes.

Other minerals

Smaller sources of copper and manganese were discovered in Manchukuo. In the same country, gold was extracted from rivers, and salt was also extracted from salt lakes. Great sources of antimony existed in these lands.

Copper obtained in 1936 100 tonnes, later in 1943 ones five times more why in 1941, Lead production was five later years was 1,223 Tonnes, zinc extraction was 398 tonnes and Aluminiun was 1,666 tonnes. Also if extracted Magnesium and in Jehol land encountered new sources of Alunite.

In similar form the Magnesium sources grew with Magnesite mines found northwest of Tsichiao and Nuishishan in 1913. These sources was extended until Antung-Mukden railway, in one extension of 100 km, with reserves of 13,6,000,000,000 of tonnes. In 1941 was functioned ones three installation for processed these mineral, were obtained ones 3,000 tonnes of mineral (240,000 tonnes or 24% of magnesium world production)

On average, Japan used 150 lb (70 kg) of iron per capita, compared with 600,000 lb in China and 1,000 lb (450 kg) in the United States.

Iron and steel Manchoukouan production

In 1933, the total production of iron in the Anshan and Penhsihu factories was 430,000 tonnes. The Anshan Factories in 1941 regularly produced 1,750,000 iron tonnes and 1,000,000 Steel tonnes. The installation in 1942 increased its production to 3,600,000 tonnes and Penhsihu plant produced 500,000 tonnes. In addition, the Tungpientao factory had the capacity to produce 800,000 tonnes.

Other industries in Manchukuo

From 1932, the Japanese increased their private and government investments in other industrial sectors:

  • Fertilizers for farming
  • Dynamite and other explosives
  • Tool / Machines manufacture
  • Electric engineering
  • Heavy chemical industry
  • Heavy Manchinery and Locomotive construction

At the same time, the construction of houses and modern-style buildings increased in the cities and towns in the country.

Nippon Lurgi Goshi K.K. of Tokyo, the Japanese Lurgi office in Tokyo, in possession of industrial licenses of Metallgesellschaft-Lurgi Frankfurt am Main A.G. of Germany, installed the following industrial plants in Manchukuo:

The Japanese company mentioned above decided during the war to install a similar factory in China to process the coal of the Mengchiang and Hopei areas:

Manchoukoan Free Trade Land Zones and Free Ports

  • Land Zones: (for interchange with Russia by Railway)
    • Tsitsihar
    • Harbin
    • Hunchun
    • Lungchingtsun
  • Free Ports: (for interchange with British, American and German merchant vessel companies)
    • Yingkow (Newchwang)
    • Antung
    • Dairen
    • Ryojun

In 1931, the total production of natural resources inside the Japanese Empire was ¥283,000,000. The complement, obtained in foreign purchases, was ¥220,000,000, which represented a self-sufficience of 60%. However, their local production was evaluated as ¥746,000,000 vs. imports of ¥660,000,000, so local production represented 61% of the total.

Other Japanese development projects in Manchukuo

The Japanese in 1943 began the construction of a large river channel with extension of 200 km to ease the merchant navigation of the route Mukden-Anshan-Sinku (Sing-Kow) to the Chili Gulf. At the same time the regulation of Hun-ho, the flow of Liao-ho river on the left side of Fushun in route to Mukden. This project permitted easy access for merchant vessels to the heart of the Manchoukuan Industrial district. At the same time Japanese planned the construction of great Electric power plants in Sungari and other rivers for the Magnesium Industrialization and other developments in the country.

Notes

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