Turonian

Turonian

The Turonian is a stage of the Late Cretaceous Epoch. It spans the time between 93.5 ± 0.8 Ma and 89.3 ± 1 Ma (million years ago).

The Turonien was definied by the French paleontologist Alcide d'Orbigny (1802 - 1857), who named it after the city of Tours in the French department of Indre-et-Loire.

Vertebrate Fauna

Ankylosaurs

Ankylosaurs of the Turonian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Bayn Shire Formation, Mongolia

Birds

Aves of the Turonian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Catenoleimus Bissekty Formation, Uzbekistan A mid-sized enantiornithine, perhaps 20-25 cm long in life
Explorornis Bissekty Formation, Uzbekistan
Ichthyornis Turonian - Campanian Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada; Alabama, Kansas, New Mexico and Texas, USA; Argentina; Central Asia The Cretaceous ecological equivalent of modern seabirds such as gulls, petrels, and skimmers. At 60 cm (2 ft), it was the size of a gull. Although the wings and breastbone are very modern in appearance (suggesting strong flight ability), the jaws retained numerous small, sharp teeth

Ceratopsians

Ceratopsia of the Turonian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Zuniceratops Moreno Hill Formation, New Mexico, USA The earliest-known ceratopsian to have eyebrow horns and the oldest-known ceratopsian from North America, appears to have been roughly 3 to 3.5 meters long (10-11 ft) and 1 meter (3 ft) tall at the hips.

Crocodylomorphs

Crocodylomorpha of the Turonian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Baurusuchus
Montealtosuchus Turonian to Santonian Adamantina Formation, São Paulo, Brazil A terrestrial Peirosaurid
Stratiosuchus

Mammals

Mammalia of the Turonian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Bryceomys

Ornithopods

Ornithopoda of the Turonian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Bactrosaurus Turonian to Coniacian Gobi Desert, Mongolia and China Would have been 6 m (20 ft) long[1] and 2 m (7 ft) high when in the quadrupedal stance, and weighed 1100 - 1500 kg (2400 - 3300 lb). Like many hadrosaurs, it could switch between bipedal and quadrupedal stances, but unusually it had large spines protruding from the vertebrae.
Macrogryphosaurus Turonian to early Coniacian Portezuelo Formation, Argentina A genus of basal iguanodont, a large bipedal herbivor
Notohypsilophodon Cenomanian-Turonian Bajo Barreal Formation, Chubut, Argentina A hypsilophodontid or other basal ornithopod, Notohypsilophodon would have been a bipedal herbivore. Its size has not been estimated
Shuangmiaosaurus Cenomanian-Turonian China A poorly known iguanodont

Plesiosaurs

Plesiosauria of the Turonian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Libonectes Britton Formation (Cedar Hill), Texas, USA A 7-14 m (23-47 ft) long creature, was very similar to the related Elasmosaurus. It had a compact body with a short tail and large flippers. Its small skull had long, forward-facing teeth ideal for catching slippery fish and squid that came together outside of its mouth when the mouth was closed, and was placed atop a very long neck.

Manemergus Morocco A genus of polycotylid plesiosaur
Polyptychodon hudsoni Texas, USA
Thililua High Atlas, Morocco A genus of polycotylid plesiosaur, the estimated total length of Thililua is 5.5 to 6 metres.

Squamats

Squamata of the Turonian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Dallasaurus Arcadia Park Shale, Texas, USA A basal, small, plesiopedal mososauroid
Russellosaurus Arcadia Park Shale, Texas, USA A basal, small, lightly built mosasaur

Theropods

Theropods of the Turonian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Rio Limay, Argentina

References

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