After severe losses in Georgia during the Russo-Persian War of 1804-13, Crown Prince Abbas Mirza (1783-1833) of Persia vowed to modernize his armies. He sent Persians to England to learn Western military techniques and invited British officers to train his troops, especially newly introduced infantry. Turkish incursions into Iran's Azerbaijan region under the pretense of punishing rebellious tribesmen led to declaration of war in 1821. Abbas Mirza attacked eastern Anatolia (Turkey) in 1821. Ottoman and Persian forces met in the Lake Van region. The war culminated in Persian victory at the Battle of Erzurum in 1821, where Abbas Mirza's army routed a superior Turkish force. Peace did not come until the Treaty of Erzurum two years later; both sides recognized the previous borders, with no territorial changes.