Definitions

turkeis

List of English words of Turkic origin

This is a list of words that have entered into the English language from the Turkic languages. Many of them came via traders and soldiers from and in the Ottoman Empire. There are some Turkic words as well, most of them entered English via the Russian language.

Languages of Turkic peoples left numerous traces in different languages, including the English language. Turkic borrowings, which belong to the social and political vocabulary, are generally used in special literature and in the historical and ethnographical works, which relate to the life of Turkic and Muslim peoples. The ethnographical words are generally used in the scientific literature, and in the historical and ethnographical texts.

The adoption of Indian words, among which there were some Turkic borrowings, became one of the ways for the words of the Turkic origin to penetrate English. Additionally, several words of Turkic origin penetrated English through East European languages like Russian and Polish. German, Latin, Spanish, Italian, French, Hungarian and Serbo-Croatian were also intermediary languages for the Turkic origined words to penetrate English.

In the nineteenth century, Turkic loanwords, generally of Turkish origin, began to penetrate not only through the writings of the travelers, diplomats and merchants, and through the ethnographical and historical works, but also through the press. In 1847, there were two English-language newspapers in IstanbulThe Levant Herald and The Levant Times, seven newspapers in French, one in German and 37 in Turkish. Turkish contributed the largest share of the Turkic loans, which penetrated into the English directly. This can be explained by the fact that Turkey had the most intensive and wide connections with England. Nevertheless, there are many Turkic loans in English, which were borrowed by its contacts with other peoples – Azerbaijanis, Tatars, Uzbeks, Kazakhs and Kirghiz.

Most of the Turkic loans in English carry exotic or ethnographical connotations. They do not have equivalents in English, do not have synonymic relations with primordial words, and generally are used to describe the fauna, flora, life customs, political and social life, and an administrative-territorial structure of Turkic regions. But there are many Turkic loans, which are still part of the frequently used vocabulary. Some Turkic loans have acquired new meanings, unrelated to their etymology.

To conclude, the words of the Turkic origin began penetrating English as early as the Middle Ages, the Turkic loanwords found their way into English through other languages, most frequently through French. Since the 16c, beginning from the time of the establishment of the direct contacts between England and Turkey, and Russia, in English appeared new direct borrowings from Turkic languages. German, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, French, Arabic, Armenian, Afrikaans, Hungarian, Yiddish, Indian, Spanish, Italian, Latin, Malayan, to a different extent, took part in the process of the transfer of the Turkic words into English. The main language from which the borrowings were made, was Turkish.

A

Afshar: from Turkic Afshar, "a Turkic tribe living majorly in Kerman province of Iran". A Shiraz rug of coarse weave. Aga or Agha: from Turkish ağa, a title of rank, especially in Turkey. Aga Khan: from Turkic agha and khan, the divinely ordained head of the Ismaili branch of Shiism. Airan: from Turkish ayran Akbash: from Turkish akbaş, literally "a whitehead" Akche: from Turkish akçe, also asper, an Ottoman monetary unit consisted of small silver coins. Akhissar: from Turkish Akhisar, a town in Manisa, Turkey near İzmir. A kind of heavy modern carpet made at Akhisar, Turkey. Altai: from Altay Mountains, range in Central Asia, which is from Turkic-Mongolian altan, meaning "golden". 1. An Asiatic breed of small shaggy sturdy horses. 2. An animal of the Altai breed. Altilik: from Turkish altılık. A coin, originally of silver and equivalent to 6 piasters, formerly used in Turkey Araba: from Russian arba, which is from Turkish araba. A carriage used in Turkey and neighboring countries. Arnaut: from Turkish arnavut, "an Albanian". An inhabitant of Albania and neighboring mountainous regions, especially an Albanian serving in the Turkish army. Astrakhan: from Astrakhan, Russia, which is from Tatar or Kazakh hadžitarkhan. Karakul of Russian origin or a cloth with a pile resembling karakul. Atabeg: from Turkic atabeg, from ata, "a father" + beg "a prince". Atabek: from Turkic, an alternative form of Atabeg.Ataghan: from Turkish yatağan, an alternative form of Yataghan. Ataman: from Russian, from South Turkic ataman, "leader of an armed band" : ata, "father" + -man, augmentative suffix. Aul: from Russian, from Kazan Tatar & Kirghiz.

B

Bahadur: from Hindi bahādur "brave, brave person", from Persian, probably from Mongolian, cf. Classical Mongolian baγatur, which is from Turkic, perhaps originally a Turkic personal name. Bairam: from Turkish bayram, literally "a festival" Baklava: from Turkish baklava Balaclava: from Balaklava, village in the Crimea, which is from Turkish balıklava. A hoodlike knitted cap covering the head, neck, and part of the shoulders and worn especially by soldiers and mountaineers. Balalaika: from Russian balalaika, of Turkic origin. Balkan: from Turkish balkan "a mountain chain", relating to the states of the Balkan Peninsula, or their peoples, languages, or cultures. Bamia: from Turkish bamya. Ban: from Romanian, from Serbo-Croatian ban, "lord", which is from Turkic bayan, "very rich person" : bay, "rich" + -an, intensive suff. Barbotte: from Canadian French barbotte, which is from Turkish barbut. A dice game Barkhan: from Russian, which is from Kirghiz barkhan. A moving sand dune shaped like a crescent and found in several very dry regions of the world Bashaw: from Turkish başa, a variant of pasha Bashi-bazouk: from Turkish başıbozuk Bashlyk: from Turkish başlık, "a hood", from baş, "a head" Batman: from Turkish batman. Any of various old Persian or Turkish units of weight Beetewk: from Russian bityug, bityuk, which is from Turkic bitük, akin to Chagatai bitü, Uzbek bitäü. A Russian breed of heavy draft horses. Beg: from Turkic beg, an alternative form of bey Beglerbeg: from Turkish beylerbeyi, a variant of beylerbey Begum: from Hindi & Urdu begam, which is from East Turkic begüm Behcet: from the name of Turkish scientist Hulusi Behçet, a multisystem, chronic recurrent disease. Bektashi: from Turkish bektaşi Bergamot: from French bergamote, from Italian bergamotta, ultimately from Turkish bey armudu, literally, "the bey's pear" Bey: from Turkish bey Beylerbey: from Turkish beylerbeyi Beylik: from Turkish beylik Binbashi: from Turkish binbaşı, "chief of a thousand", bin "thousand" + bash "head". (Mil.) A major in the Turkish army. Bogatyr: from Russian bogatyr "hero, athlete, warrior", from Old Russian bogatyri, of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish batur "brave" Borunduk: from Russian burunduk, which is from Mari uromdok or from Turkic burunduk. A Siberian ground squirrel. Bosh: from Turkish boş, which means "nonsense, empty" (bosh)Bostanji: from Turkish bostancı, literally "a gardener" Bouzouki: from modern Greek mpouzoúki, which is from Turkish bozuk "broken, ruined, depraved" or büzük "constricted, puckered". Boyar: from Russian boyarin, from Old Russian boljarin, from Turkic baylar, plural of bay, "rich"; akin to Turkish bay, "rich, gentleman". Bridge game: the word came into English from the Russian word, biritch, which in turn originates from a Turkic word for "bugler" (in modern Turkish: borucu, borazancı) or might have come from a Turkish term bir, üç, or "one, three" Bugger: from Middle English bougre, "heretic", from Old French boulgre, from Medieval Latin Bulgarus, from Greek Boulgaros, ultimately from Turkic bulghar, "of mixed origin, promiscuous", from bulgamaq, "to mix". Bulgar: from Bolgar, Bolghar, former kingdom on the Volga river around Kazan. A Russian leather originally from Bolgar. Bulgur: from Turkish bulgur, which means "pounded wheat" Buran: from Russian buran, of Turkic origin, probably from Tatar buran Burka: from Russian, probably from buryi "dark brown (of a horse)", probably of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish bur "red like a fox"; the Turkic word probably from Persian bor "reddish brown"; akin to Sanskrit babhru "reddish brown".

C

Cafeneh: from Turkish kahvane, kahvehane "a coffee shop, café", from kahve "coffee" + hane "house" Caïque: from Turkish kayık Caiquejee: alteration (influenced by caique) of earlier caikjee, from Turkish kayıkçı, "a boatman" Calpack: from Turkish kalpak Caracal: from Turkish karakulak, which means "black ear" Caraco: from French, perhaps from Turkish kerrake "alpaca coat". A woman's short coat or jacket usually about waist length. Caracul: from Uzbek karakul, an alteration of karakul Caragana: from New Latin, of Turkic origin; akin to Kirghiz karaghan "Siberian pea tree". Caramoussal: from Turkish karamürsel, karamusal, perhaps from kara "black" + mürsel "envoy, apostle" Casaba: from a town called Kasaba (now Turgutlu) in Turkey Cassock: from Middle French casaque "long coat", probably ultimately from Turkic quzzak "nomad, adventurer" (the source of Cossack), an allusion to their typical riding coat. Or perhaps from Arabic kazagand, from Persian kazhagand "padded coat". Cathay: Cathay "China", from Medieval Latin Cataya, "Kitai", of Turkic origin; akin to Kazan Tatar Kytai "China", Old Turkic Qytan "Khitan" Cham: from French, which is from Turkish khan, "lord, prince" Chekmak: from Turkish, a Turkish fabric of silk and cotton, with gold thread interwoven. Chiaus: from Turkish çavuş. Chibouk: from Turkish çubuk. Choga: from Sindhi, of Altaic origin; akin to Turkish çuha "cloth". A long-sleeved long-skirted cloak for men worn mainly in India and Pakistan. Chouse: perhaps from Turkish çavuş "a doorkeeper, messenger" Cluck: from Turkish çulluk, one of the words for turkey. Corsac: from Russian korsak, from Kirghiz karsak, "a small yellowish brown bushy-tailed fox" Cosaque: from French, literally, "Cossack", from Russian kazak & Ukrainian kozak, which is from Turkic kazak. A cracker. Cossack: from Turkic quzzaq which means "adventurer, guerilla, nomad" (Cossack)

D

Desemer: from German, from Low German, alteration of Middle Low German bisemer, besemer, of Baltic origin; akin to Lithuanian bezmnas, of Slavic origin; akin to Old Russian bezmenu "desemer, small weight", Polish bezmian, przezmian "balance without pans", perhaps of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish batman "small weight". An ancient balance. Devshirmeh: from Turkish devşirme, which means "gathering" Dey: from Turkish dayı, literally "a maternal uncle" Dolma: from Turkish dolma, which means "filled" or "stuffed" Dolman: ultimately from Turkish dolaman, a robe, from dolamak "to wind" Domra: from Kazakh dombra, a musical instrument Doner kebab: (Canadian: donair) from Turkish döner kebap Donmeh: from Turkish dönme, which literally means "a convert" Donum: from Turkish dönüm, an alternative form of dunam Doodle: from German dudeln "to play (the bagpipe)", from dudel "a bagpipe", from Czech or Polish dudy "a bagpipe", from Turkish düdük "a flute". Dunam: from Turkish dönüm, from dönmek "go round"

E

Elchee or elchi: from Turkish elçi, which means "an ambassador". Eleme figs: from Turkish eleme "selected, sifted". Smyrna figs of superior quality packed flat.

F

G

Galiongee: from Turkish kalyonçi, kalyoncu, "a Turkish sailor", from kalyon, Italian galeone + çi or cu, the Turkish suffix. Ganch: modification of Turkish kancalamak "to put on a hook", from Turkish kanca "large hook", modification of Greek gampsos "curved" + Turkish suffix -lamak. Ghiordes: from Turkish Gördes, a town in Manisa, Turkey. An Anatolian rug characterized by fine knotting, mellow colors, a wool pile, and a cotton web; especially : a fine prayer rug of the 17th and 18th centuries. Gilet: from French, from Spanish gileco, jaleco, chaleco, from Arabic jalikah, "a garment worn by slaves in Algeria", from Turkish yelek "waistcoat, vest"

H

Haremlik: from Turkish haremlik, from harem (from Arabic harim & Arabic haram) + the Turkish suffix -lik "a place" Horde: from Turkic ordu or orda ("khan's residence") (horde)Hun: from Medieval Latin Hunni, apparently ultimately from Turkic Hun-yü, the name of a tribe.

I

Imam bayildi: from Turkish imambayıldı, "the imam fainted", an eggplant dish prepared with olive oil. Imbat: from Turkish imbat, a cooling etesian wind in the Levant (as in Cyprus).

J

Janissary: from Turkish yeniçeri, which means "a new soldier" (janissary)Jelick: from Turkish yelek, the bodice or vest of a Turkish woman's dress. Jettru: from Turkic, a union of seven Turkic peoples of Central Asia formed at the end of the 17th or beginning of the 18th century under one khan.

K

Kaftan: from Turkish kaftan (also in Persian) Kaique: from Turkish kayık, an alternative form of caïque. Kangal: from Turkish kangal or sivas kangal köpeği Karabagh: from Azeri Karabagh, a region in Azerbaijan. A small Caucasian rug. Karabash: from Turkish karabaş, literally "a blackhead" Karadagh: from Azeri Karadagh, a mountain range in Azerbaijan province, northwestern Iran. a Persian rug having a bold design and rich coloring. Karagane: from Russian karagan, which is from Turkic karagan. A species of gray fox found in Russia. Karakul: from Uzbek karakul, literally a village in Uzbekistan Karakurt: from Russian, of Turkic origin, karakurt, "a venomous spider". Kasseri: from New Greek kaseri, from Turkish kaşer, kaşar Kavass: from Turkish kavas Kazak: from Kazak, a town in Azerbaijan, an Oriental rug in bold colors with geometric designs or stylized plant and animal forms. Kefir: from Russian, probably ultimately from Old Turkic köpür, "milk, froth, foam", from köpürmäk, "to froth, foam". Kelek: from Turkish kelek, a raft or float supported on inflated animal skins. Kendyr: from Russian kendyr, from Turkish kendir. A strong bast fiber that resembles Indian hemp and is used in Asia as cordage and as a substitute for cotton and hemp. Ketch: probably from Middle English cacchen "to capture", or perhaps from Turkish kayık "a boat, skiff". Khagan: from Turkic kaghan, an alternative form of khan Khan: from Turkic khan, akin to Turkish han (title meaning "ruler") Khanum: from Turkic khanum, akin to Turkish hanım, "a female derivation of Khan" Khatun: from Turkic khatūn, perhaps from Old Turkic or from Sogdian kwat'yn, "a queen" Kibitka: from Russian, of Turkic origin; akin to Kazan Tatar kibit "booth, stall, tent", Uyghur käbit. Kibosh: looks Yiddish, but origin in early 19c. English slang seems to argue against this. One candidate is Irish caip bháis, caipín báis "cap of death". Or it may somehow be connected with Turkish bosh. Kielbasa: from Polish kiełbasa, from East and West Slavic *kŭlbasa, from East Turkic kül bassï, "grilled cutlet", from Turkic kül bastï : kül, "coals, ashes" + bastï, "pressed (meat)" (from basmaq, to press) Kilij: from Turkish kılıç, a Turkish saber with a crescent-shaped blade. Kipchak: from Russian, which is from Chagatai. 1. One of the ancient Turkic peoples of the Golden Horde related to the Uyghurs and Kyrgyz. 2. The Turkic language of the Kipchaks. Kis Kilim: from Turkish kızkilim, a kind of carpet. Kizilbash: from Turkish kızılbaş, literally "a red head" Knish: from Yiddish, from Ukrainian knysh, probably of Turkic origin. Kok-saghyz: from Russian kok-sagyz, from Turkic kök-sagız, from kök "root" + sagız "rubber, gum" Komitadji: from Turkish komitacı, a rebel, member of a secret revolutionary society. Konak: from Turkish konak, a large house in Turkey. Krym-saghyz: from Russian krym-sagyz, of Turkic origin, from Krym "Crimea" , + sagız "rubber, gum". Kulah: from Turkish Kula, a town in western Turkey. A Turkish rug that is often a prayer rug and that uses the Ghiordes knot. Kulak: from Russian kulak "a fist", of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish kol "arm". Kulan: from Kirghiz kulan, "the wild ass of the Kirghiz steppe". Kumiss: from Turkic kumyz or kumis (kumiss)Kurbash: from Turkish kırbaç Kurgan: from Russian, of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish kurgan "fortress, castle" Kurus: from Turkish kuruş, a Turkish piaster equal to 1/100 lira.

L

Lackey: from French laquais, from Spanish lacayo, ultimately from Turkish ulak, which means "runner" or "courier". Ladik: from Turkish Ladik, a village in Turkey. A rug of fine texture woven in and near Ladik in central Anatolia. Latten: from Middle English latoun, laton, from Middle French laton, leton, from Old Provençal, from Arabic latun, of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish altın "gold" Lavash: from Armenian, which is from Turkish lavash. Lokshen: from Yiddish, plural of loksh "noodle", from Russian dial. loksha, of Turkic origin; akin to Uyghur & Kazan Tatar lakca "noodles", Chuvash läskä.

M

Mammoth: from Russian mamot, mamont, mamant, perhaps from a Yakut word derived from Yakut mamma "earth"; from the belief that the mammoths burrowed in the earth like moles. Martagon: from Middle English, from Old French, from Old Spanish, from Ottoman Turkish martagan, "a kind of turban".

N

Nagaika: from Russian, of Turkic origin; akin to Kirghiz nogai

O

Oda: from Turkish oda, literally "a room, chamber". A room in a harem. Odalisque: from French, which is from Turkish odalık, from oda, "a room" Oghuz or Ghuz: from Turkic oghuz. A descendant of certain early Turkic invaders of Persia. Osmanli: from Turkish osmanlı, from Osman, founder of the Ottoman Empire + "of or pertaining to" Ottoman: from French, adjective & noun, probably from Italian ottomano, from Turkish osmani, from Osman, Othman died 1326, founder of the Ottoman Empire

P

Paklava: modification of Turkish baklava Parandja: from Uzbek, a heavy black horsehair veil worn by women of Central Asia. Pasha: from Turkish paşa, earlier basha, from bash "head, chief" which equates to "Sir" Pashalic: from Turkish paşalık, "title or rank of pasha", from paşa: the jurisdiction of a pasha or the territory governed by him Pastrami: from Yiddish pastrame, from Romanian pastrama, ultimately from Turkish pastırma Petcheneg: from Russian pecheneg, which is from Turkic. Member of a Turkic people invading the South Russian, Danubian, and Moldavian steppes during the early Middle Ages. Pirogi: from Yiddish, from Russian, plural of pirog (pie), perhaps borrowed from Kazan Tatar, (cf. Turk. borek) Pul: from Persian pul, which is from Turkish pul. A unit of value of Afghanistan equal to 1/100 afghani.

Q

Qajar or Kajar: from Persian Qajar, of Turkish origin. A people of northern Iran holding political supremacy through the dynasty ruling Persia from 1794 to 1925. Quiver: from Anglo-French quiveir, from Old French quivre, probably ultimately from the Hunnic language.

R

Rumelian: from Turkish rumeli, of, relating to, or characteristic of Rumelia

S

Sabot: from Old French çabot, alteration of savate "old shoe", probably of Turkish or Arabic origin. Saic: from French saïque, from Turkish shaika. Saiga: from Russian saĭgá(k), from Turkic; cf. Chagatai sayğak Saker: through Old French from Arabic saqr, probably from Turkic sonqur, which means "a falcon". Samiel: from Turkish samyeli, sam, "poisonous" + yel, "wind". Sanjak: from Turkish sancak, which means "a banner" Sarma: from Turkish sarma, which means "wrapping" Saxaul: from Russian saksaul, which is from Kazakh seksevil. A leafless xerophytic shrub or tree of the family Chenopodiaceae of Asia that has green or greenish branches and is used for stabilization of desert soils. Selamlik: from Turkish Selamlık. Seljuk: from Turkish Selçuk, "eponymous ancestor of the dynasties". Of or relating to any of several Turkic dynasties that ruled over a great part of western Asia in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. Seraskier: from Turkish serasker, from Persian ser "head, chief" + Arabic asker "an army". Sevruga: through Russian sevryuga ultimately from Tatar söirök. Shabrack: from French schabraque, from German schabracke, from Hungarian csáprág, from Turkish çaprak Shagreen: from Turkish sağrı, which means "the back of a horse" Shashlik: from Crimean Tatar şışlık, which means "shish kebab" Shawarma: ultimately from Turkish çevirme, which literally means "turning" Shish: from Turkish şiş, which literally means "a skewer" Shish kebab: from Turkish şiş kebabı Shor: from Russian, of Altaic origin; akin to Kalmyk & Mongolian sor "salt", Turkish sure "brackish soil". A salt lake in Turkestan, a salina. Som: from Kirghiz, "crude iron casting, ruble"

T

Taiga: from Russian taiga, of Turkic origin; akin to Teleut taiga "rocky, mountainous terrain", Turkish dağ "mountain"; Mongolian origin is also possible. Taramasalata: from modern Greek taramas "preserved roe", from Turkish tarama "preparation of soft roe or red caviar" + salata "salad". Taranchi: from Chagatai Taranci, literally "a farmer". Tarantass: from Russian tarantas, which is from Kazan Tatar tarıntas. Tarbagan: from Russian, which is from Teleut. A pale or reddish gregarious bobac inhabiting the grassy steppes of Central Asia. Tarbush: from Arabic tarbūsh, from Ottoman Turkish terposh, probably from Persian sarposh "headdress" (equivalent to sar "head" + pūsh "covering"), by association with Turkish ter "sweat". A tasseled cap of cloth or felt, usually red, that is worn by Muslim men either by itself or as the inner part of the turban. Tarkhan: from Old Turkic tarkan, a privileged class. Tarpan: from Russian, which is from Kirghiz or Kazakh tarpan. Tartar: from Persian Tatar, of Turkic origin. A ferocious or violent person. Tau-saghyz: from Russian tau-sagyz, from Turkic tau-sagız, from tau "mountain" + sagız "gum, rubber". Tavla: from Turkish tavla, a version of the board game backgammon. Tekke: from Turkish tekke, a dervish monastery. Tenge: from Kazakh teŋge "coin, ruble". Tepe: from Turkish tepe, literally "a hill, summit". An artificial mound. Terek: from Terek, river of southeast Russia, which is from Balkar Terk. A sandpiper of the Old World breeding in the far north of eastern Europe and Asia and migrating to southern Africa and Australia and frequenting rivers. Theorbo: from Italian tiorba, which is from Turkish torba "a bag". Toman: from Persian تومان, which is from Turkic tümen, "a unit of ten thousand". Tovarich: from Russian tovarishch, from Old Russian tovarishch, sing. of tovarishchi, "business associates", which is from Old Turkic tavar ishchi, "businessman, merchant" : tavar, "wealth, trade" + ishchi, "one who works" (from ish, "work, business"). Tughra: from Turkish tuğra, an elaborate monogram formed of the Sultan's name and titles. Tungus: from Russian, from East Turkic tunguz, "wild pig, boar", from Old Turkic tonguz. Turk: from Turkish türk, which has several meanings in English. Turki: from Persian turki, from Turk, "Turk", from Turkish Türk. Turquoise: from Middle English Turkeys, from Anglo-French turkeise, from feminine of turkeis Turkish, from Turc Turkish. Tuzla: from Turkish tuzla, from the name of Lake Tuz in Turkey. A central Anatolian rug. Tzatziki: from modern Greek tsatsiki, which is from Turkish cacık.

U

Ugrian: from Old Russian Ugre, which means "Hungarians", of Turkic origin. Uhlan: from Turkish oğlan "a boy, servant". Urdu: from Hindustani Urdu "camp", which is from Turkic ordu (source of horde). Urman: from Russian, which is from Kazan Tatar urman, "a forest", synonymous with taiga. Ushak: from Ushak, Turkish Uşak, manufacturing town of western Turkey. A heavy woolen oriental rug tied in Ghiordes knots and characterized by bright primary colors and an elaborate medallion pattern.

V

Vampire: from French vampire or German Vampir, from Hungarian vámpír, from O.C.S. opiri (cf. Serb. vampir, Bulg. văpir, Ukr. uper, Pol. upior), said by Slavic linguist Franc Miklošič to be ultimately from Kazan Tatar ubyr "witch".

W

X

Y

Yaourt: from Turkish yoğurt, a fermented drink, or milk beer, made by the Turks. Yardang: from Turkic yardang, ablative of yar "steep bank, precipice". Yarmulka: of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish yağmurluk which means "rainwear". Yashmak or yashmac: from Turkish yaşmak. Yataghan: from Turkish yatağan. Yoghurt: from Turkish yoğurt. (yoghurt)Yurt: from Turkic yurt, which means "a dwelling place". Yuruk: from Turkish yürük, "a nomad". 1. One of a nomadic shepherd people of the mountains of southeastern Anatolia. 2. A Turkish rug from the Konya and Karaman regions, southeastern Anatolia.

Z

Zill: from Turkish zil "bell, cymbals", of imitative origin.

See also

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