Cement-mortar lined ductile iron pipe is governed by standards set forth by DIPRA (Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association), and was first used in 1922 in Charleston, South Carolina.
Ductile Iron is commonly used in place of cast iron pipe for fluid distribution systems, the idea of lining the formerly cast iron and currently ductile iron was put in to practice for the first time in Charleston, South Carolina in 1922. The purpose of installing a cement/morter lining to the interior wall of the pipe is to reduce the process of tuberculation inside the pipe network. The cement/morter lining provides an area of high "Ph" near the pipe wall and provides a barrier between the pipe which is more susceptible to corrosion.
Hystricurid trilobite larvae from the Garden City Formation (Lower Ordovician) of Idaho and their phylogenetic implications
Sep 01, 1997; ABSTRACT-Hystricurids are considered to constitute the earliest (early Ibexian or Tremadocian) family of Proetida, based on...