tsung tu

Governor-General (China)

Zǒngdū, (traditional: 總督 simplified: 总督 Wade-Giles: tsung-tu; Manchu: Uheri kadalara amban) usually translated as Governor-General or Viceroy, governed one or more provinces of Qing-dynasty China. One of the most important was the Viceroy of Zhili, since it emcompassed the imperial capital. Yuan Shikai, later president of the Republic of China, held this office. It was also used by Japan during her colonization of Korea and Taiwan. The Chinese term first came into use during the Ming Dynasty.

The lists of Governor-General in Qing dynasty were:


  • Mayers, William Frederick. The Chinese Government: A Manual of Chinese Titles, Categorically Arranged and Explained, with an Appendix. 3rd edition revised by G.M.H. Playfair ed. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1897; reprint, Taibei: Ch'eng-Wen Pub. Co., 1966.

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