Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American business magnate, socialite, television personality, and author. He is the Chairman and CEO of the Trump Organization, a US-based real-estate developer. Trump is also the founder of Trump Entertainment Resorts, which operates numerous casinos and hotels across the world. Trump's extravagant lifestyle and outspoken manner have made him a celebrity for years, a status which was only amplified by the success of his NBC reality show, The Apprentice (of which he serves as host and executive producer).
Donald was the fourth of five children of Fred Trump, a wealthy real estate developer based in New York City. Donald was strongly influenced by his father in his eventual goals to make a career in real estate development., and upon his graduation from Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania in 1968, Donald Trump joined his father's company, The Trump Organization.
Starting with the renovation of the Commodore Hotel into the Grand Hyatt with the Pritzker family, he continued with Trump Tower in New York City and several other residential projects. Trump would later expand into the airline industry (buying the Eastern Shuttle routes), and Atlantic City casino business, including buying the Taj Mahal Casino from the Crosby family, then taking it into bankruptcy. This expansion, both personal and business, led to mounting debt. Much of the news about him in the early 1990s involved his much publicized financial problems, creditor-led bailout, extramarital affair with Marla Maples, and the resulting divorce from his first wife, Ivana Trump.
The late 1990s saw a resurgence in his financial situation and fame. In 2001, he completed Trump World Tower, a 72-story residential tower across from the United Nations Headquarters. Also, he began construction on Trump Place, a multi-building development along the Hudson River. Trump owns commercial space in Trump International Hotel and Tower, a 44-story mixed-use (hotel and condominium) tower on Columbus Circle. Trump currently owns several million square feet of prime Manhattan real estate, and remains a major figure in the field of real estate in the United States and a celebrity for his prominent media exposures.
Background and Education
He was the son of Fred Christ Trump
, New York
, 11 October 1905 – 25 June 1999) and wife, married in 1936, Mary A. MacLeod (Stornoway
, 10 May 1912 – 7 August 2000). His paternal grandparents were German
immigrants Frederick Trump (Kallstadt
, 14 March 1869 – 30 March 1918), who immigrated to the United States in 1885 and naturalized US Citizen in 1892, and wife, married at Kallstadt
, in 1902, Elisabeth Christ (10 October 1880 – 6 June 1966).
He attended The Kew-Forest School in Forest Hills, Queens, but after trouble there when he was thirteen, his parents sent him to the New York Military Academy hoping to direct his energy and assertiveness in a positive manner. It worked reasonably well: while at NYMA, in upstate NY, Trump earned academic honors, played varsity football in 1962, varsity soccer in 1963, and varsity baseball from '62-64 (baseball captain '64). The baseball coach, Ted Dobias, a local celebrity for his unselfish work with area youth, awarded him the Coach's Award in '64. Promoted to Cadet Captain-S4 (Cadet Battalion Logistics Officer) his Senior Year, Trump, and Cadet First Sergeant Jeff Donaldson, '65, (West Point '69) formed a composite company of cadets, taught them advanced close-order drill, and marched them all down Fifth Avenue on Memorial Day, 1964.
Trump attended Fordham University for two years before transferring to the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. After graduating in 1968 with a Bachelor of Science in economics and concentration in finance, he joined his father's real estate company.
In his book, Trump: The Art of the Deal, Trump discusses his undergraduate career:
- "After I graduated from the New York Military Academy in 1964, I flirted briefly with the idea of attending film school...but in the end I decided real estate was a much better business. I began by attending Fordham University...but after two years, I decided that as long as I had to be in college, I might as well test myself against the best. I applied to the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania and I got in...I was also very glad to get finished. I immediately moved back home and went to work full time with my father."
Early success (1968–1989)
Trump began his career at his father's company, the Trump Organization, and initially concentrated on his father's preferred field of middle-class rental housing in Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island. One of Donald's first projects, while he was still in college, was the revitalization of the foreclosed Swifton Village apartment complex
--turning a 1200-unit complex with a 66% vacancy rate to 100% occupancy within a year. When the Trump Organization sold Swifton Village for $12 million, they cleared $6 million in profit.
In 1971 Trump moved his residence to Manhattan, where he became convinced of the economic opportunity in the city, specifically large building projects in Manhattan that would offer opportunities for earning high profits, utilizing attractive architectural design, and winning public recognition. Trump began by landing the rights to develop the old Penn Central yards on the West Side, then--with the help of a 40-year tax abatement by the financially strained New York City government, which was eager to give tax concession in exchange for investments at a time of financial crisis--turned the bankrupt Commodore Hotel into a new Grand Hyatt.
He was also instrumental in steering the development of the Javits Convention Center on property he had an option on. The development saga of the Javits Convention Center brought Donald Trump into contact with the New York City government when a project he'd estimated could have been completed by his company for $110 million ended up costing the city between $750 million to $1 billion. He offered to take over the project at cost but the offer was not accepted.
A similar opportunity would arise in the city's attempt to restore the Wollman Rink in Central Park--a project started in 1980 with an expected 2½-year construction schedule that was still, with $12 million spent, nowhere near completion in 1986. Trump offered to take over the job at no charge to the city, an offer that was initially rebuffed until it received much local media attention. Trump was given the job which he completed in six months and with $750,000 of the $3 million budgeted for the project left over.
Financial problems (1989–1997)
By 1989, the effects of recession
left Trump unable to meet loan payments. Trump financed the construction of his third casino, the $1 billion Taj Mahal
, primarily with high-interest junk bonds
. Although he shored up his businesses with additional loans and postponed interest payments, by 1991 increasing debt brought Trump to business bankruptcy
and the brink of personal bankruptcy. Banks and bond
holders had lost hundreds of millions of dollars, but opted to restructure his debt to avoid the risk of losing more money in court. The Taj Mahal
re-emerged from bankruptcy on October 5, 1991, with Trump ceding 50% ownership in the casino to the original bondholders in exchange for lowered interest rates on the debt and more time to pay it off.
On November 2, 1992, the Trump Plaza Hotel
was forced to file a prepackaged Chapter 11 Bankruptcy
protection plan after being unable to make its debt payments. Under the plan, Trump agreed to give up a 49% stake in the luxury hotel to Citibank and five other lenders. In return Trump would receive more favorable terms on the remaining $550+ million owed to the lenders and retain his position as chief executive, though he would not be paid and would not have a role in day-to-day operations.
By 1994, Trump had eliminated a large portion of his $900 million personal debt and reduced significantly his nearly $3.5 billion in business debt. While he was forced to relinquish the Trump Shuttle
(which he had bought in 1989), he managed to retain Trump Tower in New York City and control of his three casinos in Atlantic City. Chase Manhattan Bank
, which lent Trump the money to buy the West Side yards, his biggest Manhattan parcel, forced the sale of a parcel to Asian developers. According to former members of the Trump Organization, Trump did not retain any ownership of the site's real estate - the owners merely promised to give him about 30 percent of the profits once the site was completely developed or sold. Until that time, the owners wanted to keep Trump on to do what he did best: build things. They gave him a modest construction fee and a management fee to oversee the development. The new owners also allowed him to put his name on the buildings that eventually rose on the yards because his well-known moniker allowed them to charge a premium for their condos.
In 1995, he combined his casino holdings into the publicly held Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts
. Wall Street
drove its stock above $35 in 1996, but by 1998 it had fallen into single digits as the company remained profitless and struggled to pay just the interest on its nearly $3 billion in debt. Under such financial pressure, the properties were unable to make the improvements necessary for keeping up with their flashier competitors.
Finally, on October 21, 2004, Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts announced a restructuring of its debt. The plan called for Trump's individual ownership to be reduced from 56 percent to 27 percent, with bondholders receiving stock in exchange for surrendering part of the debt. Since then, Trump Hotels has been forced to seek voluntary bankruptcy protection to stay afloat. After the company applied for Chapter 11 Protection in November 2004, Trump relinquished his CEO position but retained a role as Chairman of the Board. In May 2005 the company re-emerged from bankruptcy as Trump Entertainment Resorts Holdings
Trump has several projects under way. The level of success of the progress of the projects varies. The Trump International Hotel and Tower - Honolulu
seems to be a success. According to Trump, buyers paid non-refundable deposits to commit to purchase every unit on the first day they were made available. Construction of the Trump International Hotel and Tower - Chicago
seems to be proceeding as planned although 30% of the units remain unsold. The Trump International Hotel and Tower - Toronto
has had a series of delays and a height reduction. The Trump Tower - Tampa
has been quite controversial because the initial sales were so successful that all deposits were returned to charge a higher price. Three years after construction of this controversial development began, construction has delayed and lawsuits have been filed. In one Trump construction project was put on hold in favor of another (Trump International Hotel and Tower - Fort Lauderdale
). Meanwhile, Trump Towers - Atlanta
is being developed in a housing market which has the nation's second-highest inventory of unsold homes.
In its October 7, 2007 Forbes 400 issue, "Acreage Aces," Forbes valued Trump's wealth to $3.0 billion. Trump is known for his many properties.
Selected completed properties
- Trump World Tower: 845 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY. It is valued at $290 million.
- Trump Tower: 725 Fifth Ave, New York, NY 10022 Trump owns the retail and office space on the lower half of this building. It is valued at $288 million.
- Personal Residence: Trump Tower: top 3 floors of Trump Tower with approximately 30,000 square feet (3,000 m²) of space; detailed in bronze, gold, and marble. Worth as much as $50 million, it is one of the most valuable apartments in New York City.
- AXA Financial Center, 1290 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY
- 555 California Street, formerly the Bank of America Center, in San Francisco: When Trump was forced to sell a stake in the railyards on Manhattan's West Side, the Asian group to which he sold then sold much of the site for $1.76 billion. They then reinvested the rest of the money, via a tax-free exchange, into two office buildings: 1290 Avenue of the Americas in Manhattan and 555 California Street in San Francisco (The Group has since sold their stake to Vornado Realty Trust). Trump ended up owning 30% of the two buildings. Based on the recent sales price, Trump's stake is valued at $540 million.
- The Trump Building at 40 Wall Street: Trump bought and renovated this building for about $35 million in 1996. Although Trump claims it is worth $400 million, New York tax assessors value it at only $90 million. Mr. Trump has taken out a $145 million mortgage on this property to use for other investments. Forbes values the property at $260 million.
- Trump Entertainment Resorts: This company owns the Trump branded casino resorts. After a long period of financial trouble, the company entered bankruptcy protection in 2004. Trump agreed to invest $55 million cash in the new company and pay $16.4 million to the company's debtors. In return he holds a 29.16% stake in the new public company. This stake was worth approximately $171 million in October 2006. The following are the Trump branded casino resorts:
- Riverside South/Trump Place When completed, Riverside South will be the largest single private development in New York City's history. It was built by the Trump Organization, although financed by investors from Hong Kong and owned by the Hudson Waterfront Company. During his financial difficulties in the mid 90's, Trump was forced to sell this site, the former west side rail-yards. The new owners continued Trump's involvement with the property and sought to use his name to seek higher sales prices. Trump was paid $2 million annually for his oversight of the project, and he was offered an estimated 30% of the net profits upon completion of this 10 year project. The investors sold off the uncompleted project in 2005 for $1.8 billion and offered Mr. Trump $500 million. Trump contends that the property should have been sold for more than $3 billion and in 2006 sued the owners for selling without his consent, and sought $1 billion in damages. Forbes values his stake in the property at $170 million.
- Trump International Hotel and Tower, Chicago (under construction, anticipated completion is 2009) The entire project is valued at $1.2 billion ($112 million state for Trump).
- Trump International Hotel and Tower, Las Vegas (Anticipated completion of Tower I is 2007). This is a joint development with fellow Forbes 400 member, Phillip Ruffin. Trump's stake is valued at $162 million.
- Trump International Hotel and Tower, New York: Trump provided his name and expertise to the building's owner (GE) during the building's re-development in 1994 for a fee totaling $40 million ($25 million for project management and $15 million in incentives deriving from the condo sales). Forbes values Trump's stake at $12 million.
- Trump Park Avenue: Park Avenue & 59th Street. It is valued at $142 million.
- Golf Courses (valued at $127 million):
- Trump currently owns four golf courses in the United States including Trump National Golf Club in Briarcliff Manor, New York, Trump National Golf Club in Bedminster, New Jersey, Trump International Golf Club in West Palm Beach, Florida, and Trump National Golf Club in Los Angeles, CA.
- In 2006, Donald Trump purchased a plot just north of Aberdeen at Menie, Scotland, Trump International Golf Links, with the intention of turning it into a £1 billion golf resort and "the world's best golf course". The development plan included two courses, a 5-star hotel, holiday homes, and a golf academy. Trump wishes the site, once finished, to hold the British Open. There has been opposition from some locals and negative reaction from environmental groups interested in preserving the 4,000-year-old dunes that are designated as an SSSI (Site of Special Scientific Interest). The development was rejected by the local council's planning subcommitee and is currently going through a planning inquiry with the Scottish Parliament.
- Trump is also building Trump International Golf Club in the Caribbean island of Canouan Island, The Grenadines. The development will include Trump Club Privee, a Monte Carlo inspired casino.
- Trump also builds residential housing developments near these golf clubs. Examples include: The Estates at Trump National in Rancho Palos Verdes, CA, Trump Island Villas on Canouan Island, The Grenadines, and The Residences at Trump National in Westchester County, NY.
- Nike Store: The Niketown store is located in Trump Tower. It is valued at $120 million
- Palm Beach estate: 43,000 square feet (4,000 m²) on a large oceanfront lot in Palm Beach. Trump purchased this property for $40 million at a bankruptcy auction in 2004. Renovations to the property were led by the Season 3 Apprentice Kendra Todd, and Trump sold the property for $100 million in June 2008, making it the most expensive house ever sold in the United States. (The preivous record is $70 million for Ron Perelman's Palm Beach estate in 2004.). Forbes values his stake in the property for $43 million.
- Mar-A-Lago, Palm Beach, Florida. Most of this estate has been converted into a private club. This landmark property, according to Trump, has received bids near $200,000,000. However, Forbes magazine does not take into account either of Trump's large vacation residences (Mar-a-Largo or his spread near Bedford, NY in Westchester County, NY) for its valuation of his wealth.
Real Estate Licensing
Many developers pay Donald Trump to market their properties and be the public face for their projects. For that reason, Trump does not own many of the buildings that display his name. According to Forbes
, this portion of Trump's empire, actually run by his children, is by far his most valuable with a valuation of $562 million. According to Forbes
, there are 33 licensing projects under development including seven "condo hotels" (i.e. The seven Trump International Hotel and Tower developments). Some examples are:
- Trump Palace: 200 East 69th Street, New York, NY
- Trump Parc and Trump Parc East: Two adjoining buildings on Central Park South on the southwest corner of The Avenue of the Americas. Trump Parc East is a 14-story apartment building and Trump Parc (the former Barbizon Plaza Hotel) is a 38-story condominium building.
- Trump Plaza: 167 East 61st Street, New York, NY (39-story, Y-shaped plan condominium building on the Upper East Side)
- 610 Park Avenue (The old Mayfair Hotel): Trump is helping with the construction and development of this property for Colony Capital.
- Trump Soho Hotel Condeminium: A partnership with Bayrock Group to build a 42 story building in Soho.
- New York City Suburbs:
- Trump Plaza: Jersey City, NJ. The project includes New Jersey's two tallest residential towers and costs about $450 million. The 55-story tower will have 445 condos, and the 50-story tower will have 417.
- Trump Plaza (New Rochelle) is a 39-story luxury residence and hotel with retail space that is currently under construction in Westchester County, NY with developer Louis R. Cappelli.
- Trump Tower at City Center is a 35-story condominium apartment building built in Westchester County, New York with developer Louis R. Cappelli.
- Trump Parc Stamford is a development in Stamford, Connecticut with F. D. Rich Company and Louis R. Cappelli.
- Trump International Hotel and Tower, Fort Lauderdale (Anticipated completion is 2007)
- Trump Towers (Sunny Isles Beach, Florida): will have over 270 residential condominiums
- Trump Grande Ocean Resort and Residences: A hotel condominium (Trump International Sonesta Beach) and two residential condominium towers (Trump Palace and Trump Royale) located in Sunny Isles Beach, Florida with fellow Forbes 400 member Jorge Perez.
- Trump Hollywood: A 40-story building on Hollywood Beach, Florida with fellow Forbes 400 member Jorge Perez.
- Trump Tower (Palm Beach) will be a 23-story residential condominium development.
In the media
Donald Trump, a two-time Emmy Award-nominated personality, has made appearances as a caricatured version of himself in television series and films (e.g. Home Alone 2: Lost in New York, The Nanny, The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, Days of Our Lives), and as a character (The Little Rascals). He has been the subject of comedians, flash cartoon artists, and online caricature artists. In addition to the aforementioned forms of media he has appeared on, he has been a guest on various talk shows and other media.
In 2003, Trump became the executive producer and host of the NBC reality show, The Apprentice, in which a group of competitors battled for a high-level management job in one of Trump's commercial enterprises. The other contestants were "fired," or eliminated, from the game. At the end of each episode, Trump eliminates at least one contestant while uttering the catchphrase "You're fired." For the first year of the show Trump was paid $50,000 per episode (roughly $700,000 for the first season), but following the show's initial success, he is now paid a reported $3 million per episode, making him one of the highest paid TV personalities. In 2004, Donald Trump filed a trademark application for the phrase "You're fired," which he had popularized on the show.
In December 2006, talk show host Rosie O'Donnell criticized Trump on The View for "acting as a moral compass for 20-year-olds" after giving a second chance to Miss USA, Tara Conner, who had violated pageant guidelines by partying and drinking. Trump, who owns the rights to the pageant, decided to let Conner retain the Miss USA crown while she pursued rehabilitation. A tabloid war raged for several weeks thereafter between the two celebrities.
In 2007, Trump received an honor for his contribution of The Apprentice to television by receiving a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
In October 2007, Trump appeared on Larry King Live and delivered a strong criticism of George W. Bush, particularly concerning the Iraq War. He also predicted that Rudy Giuliani and Hillary Clinton would win the Republican and Democratic Presidential nominations, respectively, and said that he would be very supportive of either of them being elected President. He made further statements about the issue on the The Situation Room, in which he said "anybody who wants more troops in Iraq, I don't feel can win an election" as Rudy Giuliani supports that position. On the same show, he was also critical of the public perception of Angelina Jolie as a grand beauty.
On Sept 17, 2008 Trump officially endorsed John McCain for U.S. Presidency on Larry King Live show.
The Miss Universe Organization
is owned by Donald Trump and the National Broadcasting Company (NBC
). The organization produces the Miss Universe
, Miss USA
, and Miss Teen USA
Other investments include a 17.2% stake in Parker Adnan, Inc. (formerly AdnanCo Group), a Bermuda-based financial services holdings company. In late 2003, Trump, along with his siblings, sold their late father's real estate empire to a group of investors that included Bain Capital, KKR, and LamboNuni Bank reportedly for $600 million. Donald Trump's 1/3 share was $200 million, which he later used to finance Trump Casino & Resorts.
With his success in real estate and television, Trump has succeeded in marketing the Trump name on a large number of products. These products include Trump Financial (a mortgage firm), Trump Sales and Leasing (residential sales), Trump University (a business education company), Trump Restaurants (Located in Trump Tower and consisting of Trump Buffet, Trump Catering, Trump Ice Cream Parlor, and Trump Bar), GoTrump (an online travel website), Donald J. Trump Signature Collection (a line of menswear, men's accessories, and watches), Donald Trump The Fragrance (2004), Trump Ice bottled water, Trump Magazine, Trump Golf, Trump Institute, Trump The Game (1989 Board Game), Trump Vodka, and Trump Steaks. In addition, Trump reportedly receives $1.5 million for each one hour presentation he does for the The Learning Annex.
Trump is a known World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) fan. He has hosted two WrestleMania events in the Trump Plaza and has been an active participant in several of the shows. Trump's Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic City was host to the 1991 WBF Championship (which was owned by WWE, known at the time as the "World Wrestling Federation"). He also appeared at WrestleMania 23 in the corner of Bobby Lashley who competed against Umaga with Vince McMahon in his corner, in a hair versus hair match, with either Trump or McMahon having their head shaved if their competitor lost. Lashley won the match, and he and Trump both proceeded to shave McMahon bald. Trump was also involved with the old USFL, a competitor to the NFL, as owner of the New Jersey Generals. In addition, Trump at one time acted as a financial advisor for Mike Tyson and hosted Tyson's fight against Michael Spinks in Atlantic City.
In the 2000 election, Donald Trump considered running for president as a member of the Reform party.
Instituted by Ronna Mee Brand, the Donald J. Trump Award honors and recognizes individuals who make a significant impact on the evolution, development and perpetuation of real estate throughout Greater Los Angeles.
The second annual Donald J. Trump Award was presented December 6, 2007 at the Beverly Hilton, International Ballroom. Tom Gilmore, the first recipient, presented the award to Michael Koss. Donald Trump congratulated Mr. Koss via video broadcast.
£1billion "world's greatest golf course"
Trump testified in June 2008, as first witness at the Aberdeen Exhibition and Conference Centre
(AECC) inquiry (ordered by Scottish ministers) after an Aberdeenshire Council committee denied his plans to build a £1billion
golf resort north of Aberdeen
, the "world's greatest golf course" at the Menie Estate. Environmental groups and local campaigners opposed the bid in which part of the course would be built on sand dunes that are a Site of Special Scientific Interest
(SSSI), though business leaders supported the would-be golf course. Trump stated the site "had the potential to be the greatest golf course in the world.
Donald Trump is popularly known as The Donald
, a nickname given to him by the media after his ex-wife Ivana Trump
, a native of the Czech Republic
and only marginally fluent in English, mistakenly referred to him as such in an interview. He is also known for his catchphrase, "You're Fired", made popular by his television series The Apprentice
. Trump is known for his distinctive hairstyle, which he has refused to change throughout his career.
Trump's mother Mary Anne was born on the Isle of Lewis. She left Tong, Scotland in 1930 aged 18 for a holiday in New York, met a local builder, and stayed. Born in , United States, Trump has four siblings - two brothers (Fred Jr., who is deceased, and Robert) and two sisters (Maryanne and Elizabeth). His older sister, Maryanne Trump Barry, is a federal appeals court judge and the mother of David Desmond, who is a neuropsychologist and writer.
In 1977, Trump married Ivana Zelničkova (later Ivana Trump) and together they have three children: Donald, Jr. (born December 31, 1977), Ivanka, (born October 30, 1981), and Eric (born January 11, 1984. They were divorced in 1992. In 1993, he married Marla Maples and together they had one child, Tiffany, (born October 13, 1993). They divorced on June 8, 1999. In a February 2008 interview on ABC's Nightline Trump commented on his ex-wives by saying, "I just know it's very hard for them (Ivana and Marla) to compete because I do love what I do. I really love it."
On April 26, 2004, he proposed to Melania Knauss (Melanija Knavs in Slovenian, later Melania Knauss-Trump) from Slovenia. Trump and Knauss (who is 24 years Trump's junior) married on January 22, 2005, at Bethesda by the Sea Episcopal Church on the island of Palm Beach, Florida, followed by a reception at Trump's Mar-A-Lago estate. Neither Melania nor Trump is an Episcopalian. Melania gave birth to a boy named Barron William Trump, Trump's fifth child, on March 20, 2006. He was christened at the same church as his parents were married.
Trump is an enthusiastic and highly skilled golfer
, with a low single-figure handicap. He is a member of the Winged Foot Golf Club
in Mamaroneck, New York
, and also plays regularly at the other courses he owns and operates.
Trump has authored many books including:
- Trump: The Art of the Deal (1987)
- Trump: Surviving at the Top (1990)
- Trump: The Art of Survival (1991)
- Trump: The Art of the Comeback (1997)
- Trump: How to Get Rich (2004)
- The Way to the Top: The Best Business Advice I Ever Received (2004)
- Trump: Think Like a Billionaire: Everything You Need to Know About Success, Real Estate, and Life (2004)
- Trump: The Best Golf Advice I Ever Received (2005)
- Why We Want You to be Rich: Two Men - One Message (2006), co-written with Robert Kiyosaki.
- Think Big and Kick Ass in Business and Life (2007), co-written with Bill Zanker. (ISBN 978-0061547836)
- The America We Deserve (2000) (with Dave Shiflett, ISBN 1580631312)
- Trump: The Best Real Estate Advice I Ever Received: 100 Top Experts Share Their Strategies (2007)
- Trump 101: The Way to Success (2007)
- Trump Never Give Up: How I Turned My Biggest Challenges into Success (2008)