Four closely related North American bird forms—the eastern Myrtle Warbler (ssp coronata), its western counterpart, Audubon's Warbler (ssp group auduboni), the Northwest Mexican Black-fronted Warbler (ssp nigrifrons), and the Guatemalan Goldman's Warbler (ssp goldmani)—are periodically lumped as the Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata).
Since 1973, American Ornithological Union
has elected to merge these passerine birds
as one species. The Myrtle and Audubon's forms were apparently separated by glaciation during the last ice age, and developed distinguishing physical characteristics. When it was shown however that they were able to interbreed, they no longer qualified to be considered as separate species. The reluctance of some North American birdwatchers to accept A.O.U.'s change in speciation may stem from the changes in their "life lists". Technically, what before may have justifiably counted for two entries should perhaps now be cut back to one. The two Middle American subspecies, goldmani and nigrifrons are sedentary and diverged from the northern migratory subspecies in the Pleistocene
, and so probably represent separate species.
The Yellow-rumped Warbler breeds from eastern North America
west to the Pacific, and southward from there into Western Mexico
. "Goldman's" Yellow-rumped Warbler is endemic to the highlands of Guatemala
. It is a migratory
bird which travels to Central America and the Caribbean for winters. Among warblers it is one of the last to leave North America
in the fall, and among the first to return. It is an occasional vagrant to the British Isles
In summers, males of both forms have streaked backs of black on slate blue, white wing patches, a streaked breast, and conspicuous yellow patches on the crown, flank, and rump. Audubon's Warbler also sports a yellow throat patch, while the Myrtle Warbler has a white throat and eye stripe, and a contrasting black cheek patch. Females of both forms are more dull, with brown streaking front and back, but still have noticeable yellow rumps. Goldman's Warbler, of Guatemala
, resembles Audubon's but has a white lower border to the yellow throat and otherwise darker plumage; males replace the slate blue of Audubon's with black.
These birds are primarily insectivorous, although when bugs are scarce, the Myrtle Warbler also enjoys eating the wax-myrtle berries which gave it its name. They often flit, flycatcher-like, out from their perches in short loops, in search of insects.
They nest in coniferous and mixed woodlands, and lay 4-5 eggs in a cup-shaped nest.
The Yellow-rumped has a trill-like song of 4-7 syllables (tyew-tyew-tyew-tyew,tew-tew-tew) and an occasional check or chip call note.
- Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
- Howell, Steve N. G., and Sophie Webb (1994). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854012-4.
- Hunt, P. D., and D. J. Flaspohler. 1998. Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata). In The Birds of North America, No. 376 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
- Afik DS. Ph.D. (1994). Modulation of digestive traits in a passerine bird. The University of Wisconsin - Madison, United States -- Wisconsin.
- Barrowclough GF. Ph.D. (1980). GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION IN THE DENDROICA CORONATA COMPLEX. University of Minnesota, United States -- Minnesota.
- Commisso FW. Ph.D. (1981). PARULID HINDLIMB MYOLOGY AND NICHE UTILIZATION. Fordham University, United States -- New York.
- Debruyne CA. M.Sc. (2003). Pattern and chronology of prebasic moult in wood-warblers (Parulidae). Lakehead University (Canada), Canada.
- Farr DR. Ph.D. (1995). Forest birds and ecosystem conservation in the Rocky Mountain foothills of Alberta. University of Alberta (Canada), Canada.
- Fitzgerald TM. M.Sc. (2004). Orientation behaviour of the yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata). Acadia University (Canada), Canada.
- Folkard NFG. M.Sc. (1990). An experimental study of the plant-arthropod-bird food chain in the southwestern Yukon. The University of British Columbia (Canada), Canada.
- Hanaburgh C. Ph.D. (2001). Modeling the effects of management approaches on forest and wildlife resources in northern hardwood forests. Michigan State University, United States -- Michigan.
- Hejl SJ. Ph.D. (1987). BIRD ASSEMBLAGES IN TRUE FIR FORESTS OF THE WESTERN SIERRA NEVADA (CALIFORNIA). Northern Arizona University, United States -- Arizona.
- Holthuijzen AMA. Ph.D. (1983). DISPERSAL ECOLOGY OF EASTERN RED CEDAR JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA L. (VIRGINIA). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, United States -- Virginia.
- Hubbard JP. Ph.D. (1967). A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF THE DENDROICA CORONATA COMPLEX (AVES). University of Michigan, United States -- Michigan.
- Kelly TD. M.A. (1991). Impact of agroforestry plantations grown with agricultural drainwater on avian abundance and diversity in the San Joaquin Valley, California. California State University, Fresno, United States -- California.
- Kristensen DR. M.Sc. (1996). An assessment of the songbird habitat quality of red pine plantations in eastern Ontario. Queen's University at Kingston (Canada), Canada.
- Lowe EG. Ph.D. (2005). Wax myrtle and myrtle warblers: Reciprocal specialization and its consequences in a temperate fruit-frugivore interaction. University of Maryland, College Park, United States -- Maryland.
- Mila Valcarcel B. Ph.D. (2005). The role of Pleistocene glacial cycles in driving speciation and the evolution of migration in songbirds: Inferring evolutionary processes from mitochondrial DNA and morphological data. University of California, Los Angeles, United States -- California.
- Podlesak DW. Ph.D. (2004). Metabolic routing of macronutrients in migratory songbirds: Effects of diet quality and macronutrient composition revealed using stable isotopes. University of Rhode Island, United States -- Rhode Island.
- Rodewald PG. Ph.D. (2001). Ecology and behavior of migratory songbirds during stopover periods. The Pennsylvania State University, United States -- Pennsylvania.
- Strode PK. Ph.D. (2004). Spring phenology and trophic ecology of trees, caterpillars, and migrating neotropical-nearctic songbirds. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States -- Illinois.
- Afik D, Darken BW & Karasov WH. (1997). Is diet shifting facilitated by modulation of intestinal nutrient uptake? Test of an adaptational hypothesis in yellow-rumped warblers. Physiological Zoology. vol 70, no 2. p. 213-221.
- Afik D & Karasov WH. (1995). THE TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN DIGESTION RATE AND EFFICIENCY IN WARBLERS AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS. Ecology. vol 76, no 7. p. 2247-2257.
- Afik D, McWilliams SR & Karasov WH. (1997). A test for passive absorption of glucose in yellow-rumped warblers and its ecological implications. Physiological Zoology. vol 70, no 3. p. 370-377.
- Afik D, Vidal EC, Del Rio CM & Karasov WH. (1995). Dietary modulation of intestinal hydrolytic enzymes in yellow-rumped warblers. American Journal of Physiology. vol 38, no 2. p. R413.
- Belisle M & Clair CCS. (2002). Cumulative effects of barriers on the movements of forest birds. Conservation Ecology. vol 5, no 2.
- Bochkov A & Galloway T. (2001). Parasitic cheyletoid mites (Acari : Cheyletoidea) associated with passeriform birds (Aves : Passeriformes) in Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. vol 79, no 11. p. 2014-2028.
- Borgmann KL, Pearson SF, Levey DJ & Greenberg CH. (2004). Wintering Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata) track manipulated abundance of Myrica cerifera fruits. Auk. vol 121, no 1. p. 74-87.
- Borja M, Thomas B S & Robert K W. (2007). Speciation and rapid phenotypic differentiation in the yellow-rumped warbler Dendroica coronata complex. Molecular Ecology. vol 16, no 1. p. 159.
- Brown DR & Long JA. (2006). Experimental fruit removal does not affect territory structure of wintering Hermit Thrushes. Journal of Field Ornithology. vol 77, no 4. p. 404-408.
- Burris JM & Haney AW. (2005). Bird communities after blowdown in a late-successional Great Lakes spruce-fir forest. Wilson Bulletin. vol 117, no 4. p. 341-352.
- Burrows I. (1978). YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLER IN CO-CORK. British Birds. vol 71, no 5. p. 224-224.
- Cerasale DJ & Guglielmo CG. (2006). Dietary effects on prediction of body mass changes in birds by plasma metabolites. Auk. vol 123, no 3. p. 836-846.
- Ciminari ME, Afik D, Karasov WH & Caviedes-Vidal E. (2001). Is diet-shifting facilitated by modulation of pancreatic enzymes? Test of an adaptational hypothesis in yellow-rumped warblers. Auk. vol 118, no 4. p. 1101-1107.
- Conway WC, Smith LM & Bergan JF. (2002). Avian use of Chinese tallow seeds in coastal Texas. Southwestern Naturalist. vol 47, no 4. p. 550-556.
- Erickson WR. (2004). Bird communities of the garry oak habitat in southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Field Naturalist. vol 118, no 3. p. 376-385.
- Folkard NFG & Smith JNM. (1995). Evidence for bottom up effects in the boreal forest: Do passerine birds respond to large scale experimental fertilization?. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. vol 73, no 12. p. 2231-2237.
- Frazer KI & McWilliams SR. (2002). Determinants of dietary preference in yellow-rumped warblers. Wilson Bulletin. vol 114, no 2. p. 243-248.
- Graves GR. (1993). A NEW INTERGENERIC WOOD WARBLER HYBRID (PARULA-AMERICAN X DENDROICA-CORONATA) (AVES, FRINGILLIDAE). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. vol 106, no 2. p. 402-409.
- Greenberg R, Caballero CM & Bichier P. (1993). DEFENSE OF HOMOPTERAN HONEYDEW BY BIRDS IN THE MEXICAN HIGHLANDS AND OTHER WARM TEMPERATE FORESTS. Oikos. vol 68, no 3. p. 519-524.
- Guglielmo CG, Price ER & Hays QR. (2004). The effects of diet macronutrient composition on fuel selection during exercise in a migratory bird Dendroica coronata. Integrative and Comparative Biology. vol 44, no 6. p. 562-562.
- Gutzwiller KJ, Clements KL, Marcum HA, Wilkins CA & Anderson SH. (1998). Vertical distributions of breeding-season birds: Is human intrusion influential?. Wilson Bulletin. vol 110, no 4. p. 497-503.
- Gutzwiller KJ, Kroese EA, Anderson SH & Wilkins CA. (1997). Does human intrusion alter the seasonal timing of avian song during breeding periods?. Auk. vol 114, no 1. p. 55-65.
- Gutzwiller KJ & Marcum HA. (1997). Bird reactions to observer clothing color: Implications for distance-sampling techniques. Journal of Wildlife Management. vol 61, no 3. p. 935-947.
- Harrison RB, Fiona KAS & Robin N. (2005). Stand-level response of breeding forest songbirds to multiple levels of partial-cut harvest in four boreal forest types. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. vol 35, no 7. p. 1553.
- Holberton RL. (1999). Changes in patterns of corticosterone secretion concurrent with migratory fattening in a neotropical migratory bird. General and Comparative Endocrinology. vol 116, no 1. p. 49-58.
- Holberton RL, Parrish JD & Wingfield JC. (1996). Modulation of the adrenocortical stress response in neotropical migrants during autumn migration. Auk. vol 113, no 3. p. 558-564.
- Howe WM, Taylor DM & Jett DA. (1989). Additional Records of Birds from Cat Island, Bahamas. The Wilson Bulletin. vol 101, no 1. p. 115.
- Iris K, Jessica VM & Kenneth JR. (2005). ARSENIC SPECIATION IN TERRESTRIAL BIRDS FROM YELLOWKNIFE, NORTHWEST TERRITORIES, CANADA: THE UNEXPECTED FINDING OF ARSENOBETAINE. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. vol 24, no 6. p. 1468.
- Jobson GJ. (1978). YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLER IN ISLES OF SCILLY. British Birds. vol 71, no 4. p. 186-186.
- Johnson KW & Johnson JE. (1976). INCIDENT OF BLUE JAY PREDATION ON A YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLER. Wilson Bulletin. vol 88, no 3. p. 509-509.
- Johnson NK. (1995). 7 AVIFAUNAL CENSUSES SPANNING ONE-HALF CENTURY ON AN ISLAND OF WHITE FIRS (ABIES-CONCOLOR) IN THE MOJAVE DESERT. Southwestern Naturalist. vol 40, no 1. p. 76-85.
- Keith AH & Franz B. (2003). Isotopic fractionation and turnover in captive Garden Warblers (Sylvia borin): implications for delineating dietary and migratory associations in wild passerines. Canadian Journal of Zoology. vol 81, no 9. p. 1630.
- Kirk DA, Diamond AW, Hobson KA & Smith AR. (1996). Breeding bird communities of the western and northern Canadian boreal forest: Relationship to forest type. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. vol 74, no 9. p. 1749-1770.
- Koch L, Mace JV & Reimer KJ. (2005). Arsenic speciation in terrestrial birds from Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada: The unexpected finding of arsenobetaine. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. vol 24, no 6. p. 1468-1474.
- Komar O, O'Shea BJ, Peterson AT & Navarro-Siguenza AG. (2005). Evidence of latitudinal sexual segregation among migratory birds wintering in Mexico. Auk. vol 122, no 3. p. 938-948.
- Kwit C, Levey DJ, Greenberg CH, Pearson SF, McCarty JP & Sargent S. (2004). Cold temperature increases winter fruit removal rate of a bird-dispersed shrub. Oecologia. vol 139, no 1. p. 30-34.
- Kwit C, Levey DJ, Greenberg CH, Pearson SF, McCarty JP, Sargent S & Mumme RL. (2004). Fruit abundance and local distribution of wintering hermit thrushes (Catharus guttatus) and yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata) in South Carolina. Auk. vol 121, no 1. p. 46-57.
- Levey DJ, Place AR, Rey PJ & del Rio CM. (1999). An experimental test of dietary enzyme modulation in pine warblers Dendroica pinus. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. vol 72, no 5. p. 576-587.
- Lewis LA, Poppenga RJ, Davidson WR, Fischer JR & Morgan KA. (2001). Lead toxicosis and trace element levels in wild birds and mammals at a firearms training facility. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. vol 41, no 2. p. 208-214.
- Long JA & Stouffer PC. (2003). Diet and preparation for spring migration in captive hermit thrushes (Catharus guttatus). Auk. vol 120, no 2. p. 323-330.
- Machtans CS & Latour PB. (2003). Boreal forest songbird communities of the Liard Valley, Northwest Territories, Canada. Condor. vol 105, no 1. p. 27-44.
- McNair DB. (1993). 1ST BANDED PASSERINE RECOVERED IN THE MAGDALEN ISLANDS - YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLER, DENDROICA-CORONATA. Canadian Field-Naturalist. vol 107, no 2. p. 226-226.
- McWilliams SR & Karasov WH. (1998). Test of a digestion optimization model: effect of variable-reward feeding schedules on digestive performance of a migratory bird. Oecologia. vol 114, no 2. p. 160-169.
- McWilliams SR, Kearney SB & Karasov WH. (2002). Diet preferences of warblers for specific fatty acids in relation to nutritional requirements and digestive capabilities. Journal of Avian Biology. vol 33, no 2. p. 167-174.
- Moore FR. (1994). Resumption of feeding under risk of predation: Effect of migratory condition. Animal Behaviour. vol 48, no 4. p. 975.
- Moore FR & Phillips JB. (1988). SUNSET, SKYLIGHT POLARIZATION AND THE MIGRATORY ORIENTATION OF YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLERS, DENDROICA-CORONATA. Animal Behaviour. vol 36, p. 1770-1778.
- Moore FR & Simm PA. (1985). MIGRATORY DISPOSITION AND CHOICE OF DIET BY THE YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLER (DENDROICA-CORONATA). Auk. vol 102, no 4. p. 820-826.
- Moore FR & Simm PA. (1986). RISK-SENSITIVE FORAGING BY A MIGRATORY BIRD (DENDROICA-CORONATA). Experientia. vol 42, no 9. p. 1054-1056.
- Morris KA, Karasov WH & Caviedes-Vidal E. (2000). Does digestive physiology limit refueling rates in migratory yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata)?. American Zoologist. vol 40, no 6. p. 1139-1140.
- Norment CJ, Hall A & Hendricks P. (1999). Important bird and mammal records in the Thelon River valley, Northwest Territories: Range expansions and possible causes. Canadian Field-Naturalist. vol 113, no 3. p. 375-385.
- Pearson SF, Levey DJ, Greenberg CH & del Rio CM. (2003). Effects of elemental composition on the incorporation of dietary nitrogen and carbon isotopic signatures in an omnivorous songbird. Oecologia. vol 135, no 4. p. 516-523.
- Place AR & Stiles EW. (1992). Living off the Wax of the Land: Bayberries and Yellow-Rumped Warblers. The Auk. vol 109, no 2. p. 334.
- Podlesak DW, McWilliams SR & Hatch KA. (2005). Stable isotopes in breath, blood, feces and feathers can indicate intra-individual changes in the diet of migratory songbirds. Oecologia. vol 142, no 4. p. 501-510.
- Rimmer CC, McFarland KP, Evers DC, Miller EK, Aubry Y, Busby D & Taylor RJ. (2005). Mercury concentrations in Bicknell's thrush and other insectivorous passerines in Montane forests of northeastern North America. Ecotoxicology. vol 14, no 1-2. p. 223-240.
- Rohweder MR, McKetta CW & Riggs RA. (2000). Economic and biological compatibility of timber and wildlife production: an illustrative use of production possibilities frontier. Wildlife Society Bulletin. vol 28, no 2. p. 435-447.
- Schwab D. (1987). PARTIAL PARALYSIS IN A YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLER MAY HAVE BEEN CAUSED BY A TICK. Journal of Field Ornithology. vol 58, no 3. p. 291-292.
- Simon NPP, Diamond AW & Schwab FE. (2003). Do northern forest bird communities show more ecological plasticity than southern forest bird communities in eastern Canada?. Ecoscience. vol 10, no 3. p. 289-296.
- Steventon JD, MacKenzie KL & Mahon TE. (1998). Response of small mammals and birds to partial cutting and clearcutting in northwest British Columbia. Forestry Chronicle. vol 74, no 5. p. 703-713.
- Strong CM, Brown DR & Stouffer PC. (2005). Frugivory by wintering hermit thrush in Louisiana. Southeastern Naturalist. vol 4, no 4. p. 627-638.
- Swanson DL & Dean KL. (1999). Migration-induced variation in thermogenic capacity in migratory passerines. Journal of Avian Biology. vol 30, no 3. p. 245-254.
- Terrill SB & Ohmart RD. (1984). FACULTATIVE EXTENSION OF FALL MIGRATION BY YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLERS (DENDROICA-CORONATA). Auk. vol 101, no 3. p. 427-438.
- Whitaker DM, Carroll AL & Montevecchi WA. (2000). Elevated numbers of flying insects and insectivorous birds in riparian buffer strips. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. vol 78, no 5. p. 740-747.
- Wilson S & Martin K. (2005). Songbird use of high-elevation habitat during the fall post-breeding and migratory periods. Ecoscience. vol 12, no 4. p. 561-568.
- Yong W & Moore FR. (1993). RELATION BETWEEN MIGRATORY ACTIVITY AND ENERGETIC CONDITION AMONG THRUSHES (TURDINAE) FOLLOWING PASSAGE ACROSS THE GULF-OF-MEXICO. Condor. vol 95, no 4. p. 934-943.