True, Alfred Charles, 1853-1929, American agricultural expert and educator, b. Middletown, Conn., grad. Wesleyan Univ. (B.A., 1873). Associated with the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture from 1889, he was director of its Office of Experiment Stations (1893-1915) and of its States Relations Service (1915-23). He was noted for his work in agricultural education and became dean of the graduate school of agriculture of Ohio State Univ. in 1923.

Either of two folds of mucous membrane that extend across the interior cavity of the larynx and are primarily responsible for voice production. Sound is produced by the vibration of the folds in response to the passage between them of air exhaled from the lungs. The pitch of sound varies with the degree of vocal-cord tension. Sounds are then modified by the tongue, palate, and lips to produce speech. When at rest, the vocal cords lie apart, forming a V-shaped opening (glottis) through which air is breathed. The folds located just above the vocal cords are termed the vestibular or false vocal cords because they are not involved in voice production. Inflammation (as from excessive use) limits the normal contraction of the vocal cords, resulting in hoarseness.

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Herbaceous perennial plant (Zingiber officinale; family Zingiberaceae), probably native to South Asia, or its aromatic, pungent rhizome, which is used as a spice, flavouring, food, and medicine. The spice has a slightly biting taste and is used, usually dried and ground, to flavour breads, sauces, curry dishes, confections, pickles, and ginger ale. The fresh rhizome is used in cooking. The leafy stems of the plant bear flowers in dense conelike spikes. Oil distilled from the rhizome is used in foods and perfumes.

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Any member of the more than 85,000 species in the insect order Diptera (the two-winged, or “true,” flies), characterized by the use of only one pair of wings for flight and the reduction of the second pair of wings to knobs used for balance. Dipterans live in all habitats worldwide, including the subarctic and high mountains. They range in size from about 0.05 in. (1 mm) long (midges) to 3 in. (8 cm) long (robber flies). Dipteran larvae break down and redistribute organic materials, and both adults and larvae are a significant link in numerous food chains. Many species are annoying bloodsuckers, and several (e.g., housefly, mosquito, sand fly, tsetse fly) are vectors of disease. Other species cause great damage to agricultural crops. Seealso blowfly, crane fly, fruit fly, gnat, horsefly, leaf miner.

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True is a town in Rusk County, Wisconsin, United States. The population was 291 at the 2000 census. The village of Glen Flora is located within the town.


According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 23.5 square miles (60.8 km²), of which, 23.3 square miles (60.3 km²) of it is land and 0.2 square miles (0.5 km²) of it (0.81%) is water.


As of the census of 2000, there were 291 people, 107 households, and 83 families residing in the town. The population density was 12.5 people per square mile (4.8/km²). There were 127 housing units at an average density of 5.5/sq mi (2.1/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 99.66% White and 0.34% Pacific Islander.

There were 107 households out of which 36.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.5% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.4% were non-families. 19.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.10.

In the town the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 122.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.8 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $27,857, and the median income for a family was $28,750. Males had a median income of $23,333 versus $18,438 for females. The per capita income for the town was $13,514. About 15.4% of families and 16.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.0% of those under the age of eighteen and 15.1% of those sixty five or over.


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