Definitions

tropical storms

List of tropical cyclones

This is a list of notable tropical cyclones, subdivided by basin and reason for notability.

North Atlantic basin

These records are held by Atlantic hurricanes.

South Atlantic basin

Tropical cyclones rarely form in the South Atlantic Basin. Only three South Atlantic tropical cyclones in the area have been confirmed.

Eastern Pacific basin

These records are held by Pacific hurricanes.

Western Pacific basin

Retired names

Names retired before 2000 were done so by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Names during and after that year were retired by the Japan Meteorological Agency.
Name Year Location Deaths Damage (in million $US as of the year of damage)
Lucille 1960 Philippines 300 Unknown
Ophelia 1960 Caroline Islands 2 Unknown
Karen 1962 Pacific Islands, Japan 11 250
Bess 1974 Philippines 26-29 7.2
Bess 1982 Japan 59 Unknown
Ike 1984 Philippines, southern China 1363-3000 75.4
Mike 1990 Philippines, Vietnam, southern China 250+ 14
Mireille 1991 Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan 52 3000
Thelma 1991 Philippines 6000 19
Omar 1992 Guam, Taiwan 2 457
Vamei 2001 Singapore, Malaysia, and Sumatra 0 None
Chataan 2002 Chuuk, Japan 31 59.8
Rusa 2002 Korea 113 6000
Pongsona 2002 Guam, Marianas Islands 3 700
Imbudo 2003 Philippines 21 37
Maemi 2003 Ryukyu Islands and South Korea 115 4100
Sudal 2004 Yap 1 Unknown
Rananim 2004 Eastern China 115 4000
Matsa 2005 Taiwan, Okinawa, Northeastern China 25 2230
Nabi 2005 Mariana Islands, Japan, South Korea 75 Unknown
Longwang 2005 Taiwan, southeast China 148 150+
Chanchu 2006 The Philippines, Taiwan, southeast China and Japan 104 1200
Bilis 2006 The Philippines, Taiwan, southeast China 672 4400
Saomai 2006 Mariana Islands, The Philippines, Taiwan, southeast China 458 2500
Xangsane 2006 Philippines, Hainan, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand 279 747
Durian 2006 Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand 819+ 508+

Two names, Yanyan and Tingting, were replaced as requested by Hong Kong. Another two names, Kodo and Hanuman, were replaced before using.

PAGASA also retires names for typhoons and tropical storms that affect the Philippines.

Significant typhoons with special names

Eight especially significant typhoons were named by Japan Meteorological Agency according to the area where they caused most damage.

Other notable named storms

  • Man-yi, 2007, the strongest typhoon to affect Japan in the month of July in recorded history.
  • Maggie, Sam, York and Cam 1999, Hong Kong - Four storms to directly strike the vicinity of Hong Kong within one typhoon season
  • Paka, 1997, Guam
  • Herb, 1996, Taiwan and China - The strongest and the largest storm of this year, dropped heavy rain over Taiwan and China, killing hundreds.
  • Nina, 1975 - Dropped rain over eastern China, contributing to the collapse of the Banqiao Dam which killed at least 170,000
  • Pamela, 1976, Guam
  • Tip, 1979, Japan - Most intense and largest tropical cyclone on record
  • Rose, 1971, Hong Kong
  • Wanda, 1962, Hong Kong - Often cited by Hong Kong residents as an example of a deadly storm. Although it ranked only as Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson scale, the deficient warning system at the time led to many deaths in the villages of the New Territories unaware of the storm surge.
  • Fitow, 2007 - hit Tokyo
  • Typhoon Ruby, 1964 - the strongest and worst named typhoon to hit Hong Kong in recorded history. killed over 700 and caused widespread damage.
  • Ivan and Joan, 1997 - two of the most intense cyclones ever recorded at 872 mb; reached extreme intensities at close distance to each other.
  • Typhoon Zeb, 1998 cat. 5 with 872 milibars of pressure; caused severe damage in the Philippines, killing nearly 100.
  • Typhoon Gay, 1989 - Rare typhoon that crossed Thailand as a cat 3 typhoon; crossed into North Indian Ocean Basin and hit India as a cat. 5, killing 39.

Notable unnamed storms

  • The Kamikaze, 1281, destroyed a Mongol invasion fleet attacking Japan.
  • A system of unknown intensity that hit Haiphong in 1881, killing 300,000 people.
  • The 1922 Swatow Typhoon, a system of unknown intensity that struck Swatow, China late on August 2, 1922, killing more than 50,000 people.
  • 1934 Muroto Typhoon - killing at least 3,036, another 15,361 are injured, with 92,323 houses are lost.
  • The Great Hong Kong Typhoon of 1937 - killed 11,000
  • Typhoon Cobra (Typhoon of 1944), 17-18 December, three US destroyers lost
  • 1945 Makurazaki Typhoon - killing at least 3,756, another 2,452 are injured, with 116,491 houses are lost.
  • Typhoon of July 1949 - killed 1,600 in Shanghai, making it the deadliest typhoon in the city's history.

Most active West Pacific seasons

The following are the most active Western Pacific seasons, according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center best track. Only seasons with at least 30 storms are included.
Total
Storms
Year Tropical
Storms
Typhoons Super
Typhoons
39 1964 13 19 7
35 1965
1967
1971
14
15
11
10
16
16
11
4
4
34 1994 14 14 6
33 1996 12 15 6
32 1974 16 16 0
31 1989
1992
10
9
15
17
6
5
30 1962
1966
1972
1990
2004
7
10
8
9
10
17
17
20
17
13
6
3
2
4
7

Northern Indian Ocean

This region has had some of the world's deadliest cyclones, but there is a shortage of organized information about them.

Most active seasons

Total Storms Year Tropical Depressions Tropical Storms Tropical Cyclones (>64kt)
13 1992 2 8 3
8 1987 0 8 0
8 1996 0 4 4
8 1998 0 3 5
8 2005 1 6 1

Australian tropical cyclones

See See also Australian Bureau of Meteorology - Severe Weather Events

Most intense storms on record

This list includes Western Pacific storms with pressures of less than 885 mb and Atlantic, Eastern Pacific and South Pacific storms with pressure of less than 915 mb. Additional Western Pacific storms with pressures between 885 and 915 mb have been recorded, but these storms are neither exceptional for that basin nor all reliably measured. As for Indian Ocean storms, pressure readings are too scarce or too inaccurate to make a list reliable.

As a result of the omissions of many Western Pacific storms, many storms near the bottom of the list are not numerically ranked.

Rank Name Pressure Location Year
1 Typhoon Tip 870 mbar Western Pacific 1979
2 Typhoon Gay 872 mbar Western Pacific 1992*
2 Typhoon Ivan 872 mbar Western Pacific 1997*
2 Typhoon Joan 872 mbar Western Pacific 1997*
2 Typhoon Keith 872 mbar Western Pacific 1997*
2 Typhoon Zeb 872 mbar Western Pacific 1998*
2 Typhoon Angela 872 mbar Western Pacific 1995*
7 Typhoon June 876 mbar Western Pacific 1975
8 Typhoon Ida 877 mbar Western Pacific 1958
8 Typhoon Nora 877 mbar Western Pacific 1973
10 Typhoon Rita 878 mbar Western Pacific 1978
10 Typhoon Yvette 878 mbar Western Pacific 1992*
10 Typhoon Damrey 878 mbar Western Pacific 2000*
13 Typhoon Vanessa 879 mbar Western Pacific 1984
13 Typhoon Faxai 879 mbar Western Pacific 2001*
13 Typhoon Dianmu 879 mbar Western Pacific 2004*
13 Typhoon Chaba 879 mbar Western Pacific 2004*
18 Typhoon Violet 882 mbar Western Pacific 1961
18 Hurricane Wilma 882 mbar Atlantic 2005
20 Typhoon Forrest 883 mbar Western Pacific 1983
21 Typhoon Irma 884 mbar Western Pacific 1971
22 Super Typhoon Nina 885 mbar Western Pacific 1953
22 Typhoon Mike 885 mbar Western Pacific 1990
22 Cyclone Daryl-Agnielle 885 mbar South Indian 1995*
25 Typhoon Nancy 888 mbar West Pacific 1961
25 Hurricane Gilbert 888 mbar Atlantic 1988
27 Super Typhoon Ida 890 mbar Western Pacific 1954
27 Super Typhoon Elsie 890 mbar Western Pacific 1969
27 Cyclone Zoe 890 mbar South Pacific 2002**
30 Typhoon Joan 891 mbar Western Pacific 1959
31 Labor Day Hurricane 892 mbar Atlantic 1935
32 Super Typhoon Patsy 893 mbar Western Pacific 1973
33 Super Typhoon Sally 894 mbar Western Pacific 1964
34 Super Typhoon Hope 895 mbar Western Pacific 1970
34 Super Typhoon Amy 895 mbar Western Pacific 1971
34 Super Typhoon Louise 895 mbar Western Pacific 1976
34 Cyclone Gafilo 895 mbar South Indian 2004*
34 Hurricane Rita 895 mbar Atlantic 2005
39 Typhoon Vera 896 mbar West Pacific 1959
40 Typhoon Karen 897 mbar West Pacific 1962
41 Super Typhoon Nadine 898 mbar Western Pacific 1971
41 Cyclone Hary 898 mbar South Indian 2003
42 Hurricane Allen 899 mbar Atlantic 1980
43 Super Typhoon Tess 900 mbar Western Pacific 1953
43 Super Typhoon Pamela 900 mbar Western Pacific 1954
43 Typhoon Virginia 900 mbar Western Pacific 1957
43 Typhoon Lola 900 mbar Western Pacific 1957
43 Typhoon Elsie 900 mbar West Pacific 1975
43 Cyclone Ron 900 mbar South Pacific 1998*
43 Cyclone Gwenda 900 mbar South Indian 1999*
43 Cyclone Susan 900 mbar South Pacific 1998*
43 Cyclone Inigo 900 mbar South Indian 2003*
43 Cyclone Percy 900 mbar South Pacific 2005*
52 Super Typhoon Carla 901 mbar Western Pacific 1967
52 Typhoon Joan 901 mbar Western Pacific 1970
54 Super Typhoon Bess 902 mbar Western Pacific 1965
54 Hurricane Linda 902 mbar Eastern Pacific 1997*
54 Hurricane Katrina 902 mbar Atlantic 2005
54 Cyclone George 902 mbar South Indian 2007
57 Super Typhoon Opal 903 mbar Western Pacific 1964
57 Super Typhoon Emma 903 mbar Western Pacific 1962
59 Super Typhoon Agnes 904 mbar Western Pacific 1968
59 Super Typhoon Olga 904 mbar Western Pacific 1970
59 Super Typhoon Georgia 904 mbar Western Pacific 1970
62 Super Typhoon Grace 905 mbar Western Pacific 1958
62 Typhoon Sarah 905 mbar Western Pacific 1959
62 Typhoon Charlotte 905 mbar Western Pacific 1959
62 Hurricane Camille 905 mbar Atlantic 1969
62 Cyclone Orson 905 mbar South Indian 1989
62 Cyclone Geralda 905 mbar South Indian 1994
62 Hurricane Mitch 905 mbar Atlantic 1998
62 Cyclone Hudah 905 mbar South Indian 2000*
62 Cyclone Kalunde 905 mbar South Indian 2003*
62 Cyclone Bento 905 mbar South Indian 2004*
62 Cyclone Adeline-Juliet 905 mbar South Indian 2005*
62 Cyclone Monica 905 mbar South Pacific 2006***
62 Hurricane Dean 905 mbar Atlantic 2007
74 Cyclone Hondo 906 mbar South Indian 2008
75 Super Typhoon Agnes 908 mbar Western Pacific 1968
75 Super Typhoon Elaine 908 mbar Western Pacific 1968
77 Super Typhoon Iris 909 mbar Western Pacific 1951
78 Super Typhoon Hester 910 mbar Western Pacific 1952
78 Super Typhoon Kit 910 mbar Western Pacific 1953
78 Super Typhoon Ruby 910 mbar Western Pacific 1954
78 Super Typhoon Kit 910 mbar Western Pacific 1957
78 Super Typhoon Opal 910 mbar Western Pacific 1962
78 Cyclone Dina 910 mbar South Indian 2002*
78 Cyclone Fay 910 mbar South Indian 2004*
78 Hurricane Ivan 910 mbar Atlantic 2004
78 Cyclone Carina 910 mbar South Indian 2006*
78 Cyclone Glenda 910 mbar South Indian 2006****
78 Typhoon Jangmi 910 mbar West Pacific 2008
89 Super Typhoon Faye 911 mbar Western Pacific 1968
89 Super Typhoon Bess 911 mbar Western Pacific 1971
89 Super Typhoon Rita 911 mbar Western Pacific 1972
92 Super Typhoon Anita 912 mbar Western Pacific 1970
93 Typhoon Dinah 913 mbar Western Pacific 1959
93 Hurricane Kenna 913 mbar Eastern Pacific 2002
95 Hurricane Janet 914 mbar Atlantic 1955
95 Typhoon Gilda 914 mbar Western Pacific 1959
95 Super Typhoon Pamela 914 mbar Western Pacific 1961
98 Super Typhoon Wanda 915 mbar Western Pacific 1956
98 Super Typhoon Wendy 915 mbar Western Pacific 1971
98 Super Typhoon Vera 915 mbar Western Pacific 1979
98 Cyclone Graham 915 mbar South Indian 1991*
98 Cyclone Jane-Irna 915 mbar South Indian 1992*
98 Cyclone Pancho-Helinda 915 mbar South Indian 1997*
98 Cyclone Vance 915 mbar South Indian 1999*
98 Cyclone Frederic-Evrina 915 mbar South Indian 1999*
98 Cyclone John 915 mbar South Indian 1999*
98 Cyclone Chris 915 mbar South Indian 2002*
98 Cyclone Erica 915 mbar South Pacific 2003*
98 Hurricane Isabel 915 mbar Atlantic 2003
98 Cyclone Heta 915 mbar South Pacific 2004*
98 Cyclone Meena 915 mbar South Pacific 2005*
98 Cyclone Olaf 915 mbar South Pacific 2005*
98 Cyclone Larry 915 mbar South Pacific 2006*
98 Cyclone Floyd 915 mbar South Indian 2006*
98 Hurricane Ioke 915 mbar Central Pacific 2006
98 Hurricane Ava 915 mbar Eastern Pacific 1973
98 Typhoon Rammasun 915 mbar Western Pacific 2008
Notes:

  • *Minimum central pressure of these storms was estimated based on satellite data rather than directly measured.
  • **Official estimate. JTWC estimated 879 mbar.
  • ***Official estimate. JTWC estimated 879 mbar and unofficial estimates were 869 mbar (which would make it the most intense recorded tropical cyclone).
  • ****Official estimate. JTWC estimated 898 mbar.

Size extremes

  • Typhoon Tip is the largest tropical cyclone on record at 1350 miles (2170 km) wide, October (1979)
  • Tropical Storm Marco is the smallest significant tropical cyclone on record at 20 miles (32 km) wide, October (2008)

These sizes indicate the distance from the center at which gale-force winds could be found.

Highest storm surge

The three powerful hurricanes listed below caused very high storm surge. Hurricane Katrina had the highest recorded storm surge of any Atlantic hurricane and Hurricane Camille had the second-highest. Worldwide storm surge data is sparse. Cyclone Mahina is generally regarded as having had the highest storm surge ever recorded, although measurements from before modern times must be viewed with some skepticism.

Storm surge is enhanced by high winds and greater storm size. The shape of the coastline and the contour of the bottom near the coast are also significant factors. Hurricane Katrina was the largest Category 5 hurricane recorded in the Atlantic, and Hurricane Camille tied for the highest recorded windspeed; both struck an area vulnerable to high storm surge because of the shallow coastal waters.

Unusual landfalls

For unusual landfalls in the Atlantic basin, see List of notable Atlantic hurricanes.

Spain

  • 2005 - Hurricane Vince Made landfall in southwestern Spain as a tropical depression. Vince is the only recorded tropical system to make landfall on Spain.

Brazil

New Zealand

  • April, 1968 - Cyclone Giselle struck New Zealand causing the Wahine disaster.
  • 5-10 March, 1988 - Cyclone Bola killed 3 people in New Zealand receiving up to 1m of rain causing vast numbers of slips on the eastern side of the country.

Arabian Peninsula

  • October, 1948 - Tropical Cyclone struck Salalah in Oman.
  • May, 1959 - Tropical Cyclone struck Salalah in Oman
  • June, 1977 - Tropical Storm struck Oman
  • 1983 - Tropical Storm Aurora struck Oman.
  • May, 1984 - Tropical Storm 01-A transited the Gulf of Aden and made landfall in northwest Somalia, the first tropical cyclone on record to do so.
  • October, 1992 - Tropical Storm 06-A struck Oman.
  • June, 1996 - Tropical Storm 02-A struck Oman.
  • May, 2002 - Tropical Storm struck Salalah in Oman.
  • June, 2007 - Cyclone Gonu struck parts of Oman, causing catastrophic damage.

Somalia

  • 1984 - A tropical storm struck Somalia,
  • 1984 - A late season cyclone slammed Somalia.
  • 1994 - Somalia was hit by a tropical storm that brought winds and heavy rains.
  • 1997 - A weak November storm made landfall in Eastern Somalia.

California

Western Australia

  • 1956 - A cyclone made a close track along the whole Western Australian coast, and made a near landfall near Perth.
  • 1978 - Cyclone Alby made a close encounter to the south-west of Western Australia as a strong extratropical system in the vicinity of Perth and Albany, causing extensive damage and five deaths. Albany recorded one of its highest wind gusts on record from Cyclone Alby.
  • 1989 - Cyclone Ned passed almost directly over Perth.

Iceland

  • 2008 - Hurricane Bertha (2008) had weakened from a tropical strom to a tropical depression but made landfall in Iceland on July 20 before becoming extratropical.

Scotland (United Kingdom)

Greenland

  • 2007 - the extratropical remants of Hurricane Noel moved on november 2.

Extreme latitudes

This list contains tropical cyclones that formed or moved to an extraordinary latitude. It can be extreme north (or south) latitude, or very equatorial cyclones.

  • 1975 - A central Pacific unnamed hurricane formed at a record north latitude for the Central and East Pacific.
  • 2000 - Hurricane Alberto persisted north while tropical until a latitude of about 53°N.
  • 2001 - Typhoon Vamei formed from the equator, the closest recorded formation location of a storm of hurricane strength.
  • 2004 - Cyclone Agni reached a location of only from the equator, the closest to the equator any tropical cyclone has been recorded to have reached. However, Vamei retained the record for the most equatorial formation as Agni formed further from the equator than Vamei and moved towards it.
  • 1966 - Hurricane Faith reached an unprecedented northerly latitude of 62.5 degrees, just north of the Faroe Islands in the Norwegian Sea. Faith degenerated over Scandinavia, and the remnant low pressure area eventually reached Franz Josef Land, only from the North Pole.

Year-crossing Northern Hemisphere storms

This is a list of Northern Hemisphere storms that have crossed two calendar years. Because the Southern Hemisphere cyclone season runs across the New Year, Southern Hemisphere storms that cross calendar years are not unusual, so they are not included here.

Storm Duration Basin
Tropical Storm Zeta December 30, 2005-January 6, 2006 Atlantic
Typhoon Vamei December 26, 2001-January 1, 2002 North IndianWest Pacific
Typhoon Soulik December 29, 2000-January 4, 2001 West Pacific
Typhoon Mary December 20, 1977-January 3, 1978 West Pacific
Typhoon Harriet December 24, 1959-January 2, 1960 West Pacific
Hurricane Alice December 30, 1954-January 6, 1955 Atlantic
Typhoon Hester December 27, 1952-January 4, 1953 West Pacific

Different Storms With Same Name in Same Year

  • 1954 - There were two Hurricane Alices in 1954. One formed in June and struck Mexico. The other one formed on December 30 and lasted though January,1955. They were thought to have been in two separate years, but post-storm analysis showed the second was to have formed in December 1954, so they were both named Alice.
  • 1970 - There were two tropical storms named Ione, one of which hit the Mexican coastline with winds.
  • 1977 - Hurricane Babe in the Atlantic and Typhoon Babe in the Pacific existed at the same time.
  • 1986 - There were two storms named Vera. One was a typhoon while another was a weak tropical storm. Operationally, Vera was treated as one storm until post storm analysis found that it was actually two separate storms.
  • 1997 - In north Pacific, two storms were named Linda, one typhoon and one hurricane.
  • 2003 - In the Southern Hemisphere, two storms were named Beni, one in the South Pacific in February, one in the South Indian in November.
  • 2005 - There were two storms named Harvey. One was an Australian cyclone and one was an Atlantic tropical storm.

Tropical cyclones and airplane crashes

  • Typhoon Wilma - Ten crewmen died when a USAF B-29 crashed during the storm.
  • Hurricane Janet - Two airplanes (one of them a hurricane hunter plane) crashed during the storm.
  • Typhoon Emma - A Hurricane Hunter plane crashed in the Sea of Japan during the storm.
  • Hurricane Betsy - A DC-4 crashed on while delivering supplies after the storm.
  • Unnamed Tropical Storm - A private plane crashed near Hilo Airport, killing one and injuring two.
  • Hurricane Esther - A Navy plane crashed several miles off the coast of Bermuda. Seven of the ten crewmen drowned.
  • Typhoon Bess - A US Air force hurricane hunter plane crashed during the storm. There were no survivors.
  • Hurricane Emmy - A Venezuelan Air force plane crashed during the storm while attempting to land. Sixty-eight people died.
  • Tropical Storm Gamma - Three people were killed in a plane crash during Gamma's outer bands.
  • Tropical Storm Sam - A China Airlines (Taiwanese) McDonnell Douglas MD-11 jet (Flight CI642) crash landed at Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok airport during Tropical Storm Sam. Two died and 206 were injured.
  • Typhoon Xangsane - A Singapore Airlines Boeing 747-400 jet (Flight SQ 006) crashed in typhoon winds and burst into flames on takeoff during Typhoon Xangsane at Taipei international airport, killing 79 and leaving 84 hospitalized.
  • Tropical Storm Alma - In Tegucigalpa, an airplane skidded off a runway sodden by torrential rain, killing seven passengers and injuring over eighty.

See also

References

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