The tread of a tire or caterpillar track refers to the rubber on its circumference that makes contact with the road. As tires are used, the tread is worn down limiting their effectiveness in providing traction. A worn tire tread can be replaced using a process known as retreading. The word tread is often used incorrectly to refer to the pattern of grooves cut into the rubber. Those grooves are correctly called the tread pattern, or simply pattern.
The grooves in the rubber are designed to allow water to be expelled from beneath the tire and prevent hydroplaning. The proportion of rubber to air space on the road surface directly affects its traction. Design of tire tread has an impact upon noise generated, especially at freeway speeds. Generally there is a tradeoff of tread friction capability; deeper patterns often enhance safety, but simpler designs are less costly to produce and actually may afford some roadway noise mitigation. Tires intended for dry weather use will be designed with minimal pattern to increase the contact patch. Tires without any tread patterns are known as slicks and are generally used for racing only, since they are quite dangerous if the road surface is wet.
Street tires will also include wear limit indicators in the form of small raised bridges within the grooves. When the tread is worn down enough that the limit indicators make contact with the road, the tire is deemed to be at the end of its service life. Brake pads use similar indicators in the form of notches on their surface that disappear when they are used.
Off-road tires used in mud or dirt feature individual knob patterns to allow the tire to bite into the surface and lever the sides of the tread to get a better grip. Given the smaller contact patch, these tires tend to wear quickly when used on asphalt.
Caterpillar tracks such as those used on military tanks or construction machines have metal track segments which may be rubber-coated. They usually do not feature tread patterns, because these would offer little additional grip given the weight of the tracked vehicle.