is a clinical manifestation
characterized by weakness
and reduced muscle tone
without other obvious cause (e.g., trauma
The term acute flaccid paralysis
(AFP) is often used to describe a sudden onset, as might be found with polio.
AFP is the most common sign of acute polio, and used for surveillance during polio outbreaks. AFP is also associated with a number of other pathogenic agents including enteroviruses, echoviruses, and adenoviruses, among others.
The Clostridium botulinum
bacteria are the cause of botulism
. Vegetative cells of C. botulinum
may be ingested. Introduction of the bacteria may also occur via endospores
in a wound. When the bacteria is in vivo
they induce flaccid paralysis. This happens because C. botulinum
produces a toxin which blocks the release of acetylcholine
. When this occurs, the muscles are unable to contract.
Flaccid paralysis can be associated with a lower motor neurone lesion
. This is in contrast to a upper motor neurone lesion
, which often presents with spastic paralysis
Included in AFP's list are Poliomyelitis, Transverse myelitis,Guillain-Barré syndrome
, enteroviral encephalopathy , traumatic neuritis, Reye's syndrome
An AFP Surveillance programme is conducted to increase case yield of poliomyelitis. This includes collection of 2 stool samples within 14 days of onset of paralysis and identification of virus. and control of the outbreak and strengthening immunisation in that area.
- Approach to Acute Flaccid Paralysis (Diagnosis, Management etc.)
- WHO Programme for Immunization Preventable Diseases (IPD) A Collaboration between World Health Organization and Government of Nepal
- ACUTE FLACCID PARALYSIS information from the IPD
- National Polio Surveillance Project of India
- Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication -- Nepal, 1996-1999 CDC, MMWR October 22, 1999 / 48(41);941-944
- Acute Flaccid Paralysis Syndrome Associated with West Nile Virus Infection --- Mississippi and Louisiana, July--August 2002 CDC, MMWR September 20, 2002 / 51(37);825-828
- Sejvar JJ, Leis AA, Stokic DS, Ven Gerpen JA, Marfin AA, Webb R, et al. Acute flaccid paralysis and West Nile virus infection CDC,Emerg Infect Dis. July 2003
- Saeed M, Zaidi SZ, Naeem A, Masroor M, Sharif S, Shaukat S, Angez M, Khan A. Epidemiology and clinical findings associated with enteroviral acute flaccid paralysis in Pakistan BMC Infect Dis. 2007 Feb 15;7:6.