Transjordan

Transjordan

[trans-jawr-dn, tranz-]
Transjordan or Transjordania: see Jordan.

(born Feb. 17, 1963, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. basketball player. As a freshman in 1982, he helped the University of North Carolina win the collegiate national championship. Drafted by the Chicago Bulls in 1984, he won 10 scoring h1s and 5 Most Valuable Player awards while leading the Bulls to six championships (1991–93, 1996–98). He was also part of the 1984 and 1992 U.S. Olympic basketball teams that won gold medals. He retired briefly in 1993, hoping to play professional baseball, but returned to the Bulls in 1995. He retired again in 1999, but, after a stint as an owner and general manager of the Washington Wizards, Jordan returned to play for that team in 2001. Known as “Air Jordan” for his exceptional leaping ability, he combined acrobatic play with a fierce competitive spirit and was considered among the game's greatest players. His success on the court and in the business world made him one of the most popular and recognized athletes of all time.

Learn more about Jordan, Michael (Jeffrey) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 17, 1963, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. basketball player. As a freshman in 1982, he helped the University of North Carolina win the collegiate national championship. Drafted by the Chicago Bulls in 1984, he won 10 scoring h1s and 5 Most Valuable Player awards while leading the Bulls to six championships (1991–93, 1996–98). He was also part of the 1984 and 1992 U.S. Olympic basketball teams that won gold medals. He retired briefly in 1993, hoping to play professional baseball, but returned to the Bulls in 1995. He retired again in 1999, but, after a stint as an owner and general manager of the Washington Wizards, Jordan returned to play for that team in 2001. Known as “Air Jordan” for his exceptional leaping ability, he combined acrobatic play with a fierce competitive spirit and was considered among the game's greatest players. His success on the court and in the business world made him one of the most popular and recognized athletes of all time.

Learn more about Jordan, Michael (Jeffrey) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 19, 1851, near Gainesville, N.Y., U.S.—died Sept. 19, 1931, Stanford, Calif.) U.S. educator and ichthyologist. He studied at Cornell University and taught at universities in Indiana until 1885, when he became president of Indiana University. In 1891 he became the first president of Stanford University, and served until 1913. His extensive field trips led to his naming 1,085 genera and more than 2,500 species of fishes. He was coauthor (with B.W. Evermann) of The Fishes of North and Middle America (1896–1900) and author of Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern United States (13 editions, 1876–1929). He devoted his later career mainly to the cause of international peace, acting as chief director of the World Peace Foundation.

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(born Feb. 21, 1936, Houston, Texas, U.S.—died Jan. 17, 1996, Austin, Texas) U.S. lawyer and politician. She earned a law degree from Boston University in 1959, served in the Texas state senate (1966–72), and then won election to the U.S. House of Representatives (1973–79), becoming the first African American congresswoman to be elected from the Deep South. She became a national figure in 1974, when she participated in televised hearings of the House Judiciary Committee on the possible impeachment of Pres. Richard Nixon. Her keynote address at the 1976 Democratic National Convention confirmed her reputation as a commanding and articulate public speaker. She retired from the House to teach at the University of Texas.

Learn more about Jordan, Barbara C(harline) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

officially Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Country, Middle East, southwestern Asia, lying east of the Jordan River. Jordan has 16 mi (26 km) of coastline on the Gulf of Aqaba. Area: 34,495 sq mi (89,342 sq km). Population (2006 est.): 5,505,000. Capital: Amman. The vast majority of the population are Arabs, about one-third of whom are Palestinian Arabs who fled to Jordan from neighbouring Israel and the West Bank as a result of the Arab-Israeli wars. Language: Arabic (official). Religion: Islam (official; predominantly Sunni). Currency: Jordan dinar. Four-fifths of the country is desert; less than one-tenth of the land is arable. The highest point of elevation, Mount Ramm (5,755 ft [1,754 m]), rises in the uplands region on the east bank of the Jordan River. The Jordan Valley region contains the Dead Sea. Jordan's economy is based largely on manufacturing and services (including tourism); exports include clothing, phosphate, potash, pharmaceuticals, fruits and vegetables, and fertilizers. Jordan is a constitutional monarchy with two legislative houses; the head of state and government is the king, assisted by the prime minister. Jordan shares much of its history with Israel, since both occupy parts of the area known historically as Palestine. Much of present-day Jordan was once part of the kingdom of Israel under David and Solomon (circa 1000 BC). It fell to the Seleucids in 330 BC and to Muslim Arabs in the 7th century AD. The Crusaders extended the kingdom of Jerusalem east of the Jordan River in 1099. The region became part of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th century. In 1920 the area comprising Jordan (then known as Transjordan) was established within the British mandate of Palestine. Britain recognized Transjordan's partial independence in 1923, although the British mandate did not end until 1948. In 1950, after the end of hostilities with the new State of Israel, Jordan annexed the West Bank and east Jerusalem, administering the territory until Israel gained control of it in the Six-Day War of 1967. In 1970–71 Jordan was wracked by fighting between the government and guerrillas of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a struggle that ended with the PLO being expelled from Jordan. In 1988 King Hsubdotussein renounced all Jordanian claims to the West Bank in favour of the PLO. In 1994 Jordan and Israel signed a full peace agreement. Hsubdotussein died in 1999 and was succeeded by his son Abdullāh II.

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(born Sept. 10, 1787, near Versailles, Ky., U.S.—died July 26, 1863, Frankfort, Ky.) U.S. politician. A graduate of the College of William and Mary (1807), he became territorial attorney general in Illinois (1809). He also served in the U.S. Senate (1817–19, 1835–40, 1842–48, 1855–61), as U.S. attorney general (1840–41, 1850–53), and as governor of Kentucky (1848–50). He is best known for the Crittenden Compromise. In 1861 he chaired the Frankfort convention of leaders of border states, which asked the South to reconsider its position on secession.

Learn more about Crittenden, John J(ordan) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 19, 1851, near Gainesville, N.Y., U.S.—died Sept. 19, 1931, Stanford, Calif.) U.S. educator and ichthyologist. He studied at Cornell University and taught at universities in Indiana until 1885, when he became president of Indiana University. In 1891 he became the first president of Stanford University, and served until 1913. His extensive field trips led to his naming 1,085 genera and more than 2,500 species of fishes. He was coauthor (with B.W. Evermann) of The Fishes of North and Middle America (1896–1900) and author of Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern United States (13 editions, 1876–1929). He devoted his later career mainly to the cause of international peace, acting as chief director of the World Peace Foundation.

Learn more about Jordan, David Starr with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 21, 1936, Houston, Texas, U.S.—died Jan. 17, 1996, Austin, Texas) U.S. lawyer and politician. She earned a law degree from Boston University in 1959, served in the Texas state senate (1966–72), and then won election to the U.S. House of Representatives (1973–79), becoming the first African American congresswoman to be elected from the Deep South. She became a national figure in 1974, when she participated in televised hearings of the House Judiciary Committee on the possible impeachment of Pres. Richard Nixon. Her keynote address at the 1976 Democratic National Convention confirmed her reputation as a commanding and articulate public speaker. She retired from the House to teach at the University of Texas.

Learn more about Jordan, Barbara C(harline) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

The Emirate of Transjordan (Arabic: إمارة شرق الأردن ) was a former Ottoman territory incorporated into the British Mandate of Palestine in 1921 as an autonomous political division under as-Sayyid Abdullah bin al-Husayn. This move was formalized by the addition of a August 1922 clause to the charter governing the Mandate for Palestine. Transjordan was geographically equivalent to 1942–1965 Kingdom of Jordan (slightly different from today's borders), and remained under the nominal auspices of the League of Nations and British administration, until its independence in 1928.

Under the Ottoman empire, Transjordan did not correspond any previous historical, cultural or political division, though most of it belonged to the Vilayet of Syria and a strategically important southern section with an outlet to the Red Sea were incorporated into Transjordan by Abdullah, the provinces of Ma'an and Aqaba from the Vilayet of Hejaz. The inhabitants of northern Jordan had traditionally associated with Syria, those of southern Jordan with the Arabian Peninsula, and those of western Jordan with the administrative districts west of the Jordan River. However, the creation of the Hejaz railway by the Ottoman Empire had started to reshape the associations within the territory. Historically the territory had formed part of various empires; among these are the Babylon, Assyrian, Achaemenid, Macedonian (Seleucid), Ptolemaic, Roman, Byzantine, Sassanid and the Ottoman empire, also Jordan incorporates areas of the ancient kingdoms of Hauran, Edom, Nabatean Judea, Moab, Canaan and the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.

The British administration in Jerusalem only ever covered the area west of the Jordan, while the area east of the Jordan was administered by the British representative in Ma'an, Captain Alex Kirkbride. Until the arrival in November 1920 of Abdullah. The Mandate for Palestine, while specifying actions in support of Jewish immigration and political status, stated that in the territory to the east of the Jordan River, Britain could 'postpone or withhold' those articles of the Mandate concerning a Jewish National Home. In August 1922, the British government presented a memorandum to the League of Nations stating that Transjordan would be excluded from all the provisions dealing with Jewish settlement, and this memorandum was approved by the League on 12 August. From that point onwards, Britain administered the part west of the Jordan as Palestine, and the part east of the Jordan as Transjordan. Technically they remained one mandate, but most official documents referred to them as if they were two separate mandates. In May 1923 Transjordan was granted a degree of independence with Abdullah as ruler and Harry St. John Philby as chief representative. Transjordan remained under British control until 1928 when the first Anglo-Jordanian treaty was concluded with Great Britain. Transjordan became nominally independent although the British still maintain a military presence, control of foreign affairs and retained some financial control over the kingdom. This failed to respond to Jordanian demands for a fully sovereign and independent state, a failure that led to widespread disaffection with the treaty among Jordanians, prompting them to seek a national conference (25 July 1928) the first of its kind, to examine the articles of the treaty and adopt a plan of political action.

The borders and territory of Transjordan were not determined until after the Mandate came into effect. The borders in the east of the country were designed so as to aid the British in building an oil pipeline from their Mandate of Iraq through Transjordan to seaports in the Palestine Mandate.

The Hashemite Emir Abdullah, elder son of Britain's wartime Arab ally Sharif Hussein of Mecca, was placed on the throne of Transjordan. Britain recognized Transjordan as a state on May 15, 1923, and gradually relinquished control, limiting its oversight to financial, military and foreign policy matters. This had an impact on the goals of Revisionist Zionism, which sought a state on both banks of the Jordan, as it effectively severed Transjordan from Palestine and so reduced the area on which a future Jewish state in the region could be established. In March 1946, under the Treaty of London, Transjordan became a kingdom and on May 25, 1946, the parliament of Transjordan proclaimed the emir king, and formally changed the name of the country from the Emirate of Transjordan to the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan. After capturing the 'West Bank' area of Cisjordan during the 1948–49 war with Israel, Abdullah took the title King of Jordan, and he officially changed the country's name to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in April 1949. The following year he annexed the West Bank. With the exception of the French Cisjordanie, the coinage, Cisjordan, meant to apply specifically to the West Bank at that time, has not since caught on, outside Jordanian circles.

See also

Notes

References

  • Wasserstein, Bernard (2004). Israel and Palestine: Why They Fight and Can They Stop?. Profile Books. ISBN 1861975341

External links

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