Activities that seek to minimize or to eliminate hazardous conditions that can cause bodily injury. Occupational safety is concerned with risks in areas where people work: offices, manufacturing plants, farms, construction sites, and commercial and retail facilities. Public safety is concerned with hazards in the home, in travel and recreation, and in other situations that do not fall within the scope of occupational safety.
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Political body of the French Revolution that controlled France during the Reign of Terror. It was set up in April 1793 to defend France against its enemies, foreign and domestic. At first it was dominated by Georges Danton and his followers, but they were soon replaced by the radical Jacobins, including Maximilien Robespierre. Harsh measures were taken against alleged enemies of the Revolution, the economy was placed on a wartime basis, and mass conscription was undertaken. Dissension within the committee contributed to the downfall of Robespierre in July 1794, after which it declined in importance.
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Traffic on roads may consist of pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel. Traffic laws are the laws which govern traffic and regulate vehicles, while rules of the road are both the laws and the informal rules that may have developed over time to facilitate the orderly and timely flow of traffic.
Organization typically produces a better combination of travel safety and efficiency. Events which disrupt the flow and may cause traffic to degenerate into a disorganized mess include: road construction, collisions and debris in the roadway. On particularly busy freeways, a minor disruption may persist in a phenomenon known as traffic waves. A complete breakdown of organization may result in traffic jams and gridlock. Simulations of organized traffic frequently involve queuing theory, stochastic processes and equations of mathematical physics applied to traffic flow.
Rules of the road are the general practices and procedures that road users follow, especially motorists and cyclists. They govern interactions with other vehicles and pedestrians. The basic traffic rules are defined by an international treaty under the authority of the United Nations, the 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic. Not all countries are signatory to the convention and, even among signatories, local variations in practice may be found. Driving safely is usually easier if a driver can adapt to both written and unwritten local rules of the road.
As a general rule, drivers are expected to avoid hitting other vehicles and pedestrians, regardless of whether or not the applicable rules of the road allow them to be where they happen to be.
In addition to the rules applicable by default there are traffic signs, including traffic lights, and instructions may be given by a police officer, either routinely on a busy crossing instead of traffic lights, or as road traffic control around a construction zone, accident or other road disruption.
These rules should be distinguished from the mechanical procedures required to operate one's vehicle. See driving.
In the United Kingdom, the rules are set out in the Highway Code, including some obligations, but also a lot of other advice on how to drive sensibly and safely. For this second set of advice, it states: "Although failure to comply with the other rules of the Code will not, in itself, cause a person to be prosecuted, The Highway Code may be used in evidence in any court proceedings under Traffic Acts to establish liability." Many of its former colonies still retain this notice.
In the United States, traffic laws are regulated by the states and municipalities through their respective traffic code. The federal government's Department of Transportation has some control over road signage and vehicle safety, and limited control over the Interstate highway system (which is actually built and maintained by the states). However, all state vehicle or traffic laws have common elements. These include the mandatory automobile insurance requirement, right-of-way rules, the basic speed rule (go only as fast as is safe under the circumstances up to the maximum posted speed limit), and the requirement to stop after an accident. The most common state-by-state variation is in maximum speed limits; for example, some states like Texas have speed limits as high as , with being more common, but Oregon has a maximum speed limit of and Hawaii has a maximum of .
To enforce speed limits, two approaches are generally employed. In the United States, it is common for the police to patrol the streets and use special equipment (typically a radar unit) to measure the speed of vehicles, and pull over any vehicle found to be in violation of the speed limit. In Brazil and some European countries, there are computerized speed-measuring devices spread throughout the city, which will automatically detect speeding drivers and take a photograph of the license plate (or number plate), which is later used for applying and mailing the ticket. Many jurisdictions in the U.S. use this technology as well.
A mechanism that was developed in Germany is the Grüne Welle, or green wave, which is an indicator that shows the optimal speed to travel for the synchronized green lights along that corridor. Driving faster or slower than the speed set by the behavior of the lights causes the driver to frequently encounter red lights. This discourages drivers from speeding or impeding the flow of traffic. See related traffic wave.
Vehicles often come into conflict with other vehicles and pedestrians because their intended courses of travel intersect, and thus interfere with each other's routes. The general principle that establishes who has the right to go first is called "right of way", or "priority". It establishes who has the right to use the conflicting part of the road and who has to wait until the other does so.
Signs, signals, markings and other features are often used to make priority explicit. Some signs, such as the stop sign, are nearly universal. When there are no signs or markings, different rules are observed depending on the location. These default priority rules differ between countries, and may even vary within countries. Trends toward uniformity are exemplified at an international level by the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals, which prescribes standardized traffic control devices (signs, signals, and markings) for establishing the right of way where necessary.
In most of Continental Europe, the default rule is to give priority to the right, but this may be overridden by signs or road markings, and does not apply at T-shaped junctions in some of these countries, such as France. There, priority was initially given according to the social rank of each traveler, but early in the life of the automobile this rule was deemed impractical and replaced with the priorité à droite (priority to the right) rule, which still applies. At a traffic circle where priorité à droite is not overridden, traffic on what would otherwise be a roundabout gives way to traffic entering the circle. Most French roundabouts now have give-way signs for traffic entering the circle, but there remain some notable exceptions that operate on the old rule, such as the Place de l'Étoile around the Arc de Triomphe. Traffic at this intersection is so chaotic that French insurance companies deem any accident on the roundabout to be equal liability. Priority to the right where used in continental Europe may be overridden by an ascending hierarchy of markings, signs, signals, and authorized persons.
In the United Kingdom, priority is always indicated by signs or markings, so that every junction between public roads (except those governed by traffic signals) has a concept of a major road and minor road. The default give-way-to-the-right rule used in Continental Europe causes problems for many British and Irish drivers who are accustomed to having right of way by default unless they are specifically told to give way.
Other countries use various methods similar to the above examples to establish the right of way on their roads. For example, in most of the United States, the default priority is to yield to traffic from the right, but this is usually overridden by traffic control devices or other rules, like the boulevard rule. This rule holds that traffic entering a major road from a smaller road or alley must yield to the traffic of the busier road, but signs are often still posted. The boulevard rule can be compared with the above concept of a major and minor road, or the priority roads that may be found in countries that are parties to the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals.
Crosswalks (or pedestrian crossings) are common in populated areas, and may indicate that pedestrians have priority over vehicular traffic. In most modern cities, the traffic signal is used to establish the right of way on the busy roads. Its primary purpose is to give each road a duration of time in which its traffic may use the intersection in an organized way. The intervals of time assigned for each road may be adjusted to take into account factors such as difference in volume of traffic, the needs of pedestrians, or other traffic signals. Pedestrian crossings may be located near other traffic control devices; if they are not also regulated in some way, vehicles must give priority to them when in use. Traffic on a public road usually has priority over other traffic such as traffic emerging from private access; rail crossings and drawbridges are typical exceptions.
In the United States, South Africa, and Canada, there are four-way intersections with a stop sign at every entrance, called four-way stops. In the United States and Canada a failed signal or a flashing red light is equivalent to a four-way stop, or an all-way stop. Special rules for all-way stops may include:
In Europe and other places, there are similar intersections. These may be marked by special signs (according to the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals), a danger sign with a black X representing a crossroads. This sign informs drivers that the intersection is uncontrolled and that default rules apply. In Europe and in many areas of North America the default rules that apply at uncontrolled four-way intersections are almost identical:
In the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada, notably on extra-urban roads, a solid white or yellow line closer to the driver is used to indicate that no overtaking is allowed in that lane. A double white or yellow line means that neither side may overtake.
On roads that have multiple lanes going in the same direction, drivers may usually shift amongst lanes as they please, but they must do so in a way that does not cause inconvenience to other drivers. Driving cultures vary greatly on the issue of "lane ownership": in some countries, drivers traveling in a lane will be very protective of their right to travel in it while in others drivers will routinely expect other drivers to shift back and forth.
When driving on the left:
When driving on the right:
Countries party to the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic have uniform rules about overtaking and lane designation. The convention details (amongst other things) that "Every driver shall keep to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic", and the "Drivers overtaking shall do so on the side opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic", notwithstanding the presence or absence of oncoming traffic. Allowed exceptions to these rules include turning or heavy traffic, traffic in lines, or situation in which signs or markings must dictate otherwise. These rules must be more strictly adhered to on roads with oncoming traffic, but still apply on multi-lane and divided highways. Many countries in Europe are party to the Vienna Conventions on traffic and roads. In Australia (which is not a contracting party), traveling in any lane other than the "slow" lane with a speed limit at or above 80 km/h is a criminal offence, unless signage is posted to the contrary or the driver is overtaking.
Many areas in North America do not have any laws about staying to the slowest lanes unless overtaking. In those areas, unlike many parts of Europe, traffic is allowed to overtake on any side, even in a slower lane. This practice is known as "passing on the right" in the United States (where it is common) and "overtaking on the inside" and "undertaking" in the United Kingdom. In most countries, the inside lane refers to the fastest lane (the lane closest to the highway median), but in the United Kingdom, it refers to the slowest lane (the lane that is in fact outside).
In California, cars may use any lane on multi-lane roadways. Drivers moving slower than the general flow of traffic are required to stay in the right-most lanes (by California Vehicle Code (CVC) 21654) to keep the way clear for faster vehicles and thus speed up traffic. However, faster drivers may legally pass in the slower lanes if conditions allow (by CVC 21754). But the CVC also requires trucks to stay in the right lane, or in the right two lanes if the roadway has four or more lanes going in their direction. The oldest freeways in California, and some freeway interchanges, often have ramps on the left, making signs like "TRUCKS OK ON LEFT LANE" or "TRUCKS MAY USE ALL LANES" necessary to override the default rule. Lane splitting, or riding motorcycles in the space between cars in traffic, is permitted as long as it is done in a safe and prudent manner.
The words expressway and freeway have varying meanings in different jurisdictions and in popular use in different places; however, there are two different types of roads used to provide high-speed access across urban areas:
Motor vehicle drivers wishing to travel over great distances within the city will usually take the freeways or expressways in order to minimize travel time. When a crossing road is at the same grade as the freeway, a bridge (or, less often, an underpass) will be built for the crossing road. If the freeway is elevated, the crossing road will pass underneath it.
Minimum speed signs are sometimes posted (although increasingly rare) and usually indicate that any vehicle traveling slower than 40 mph (~65 km/h) should indicate a slower speed of travel to other motor vehicles by engaging the vehicle's four-way flashing lights. Alternative slower-than-posted speeds may be in effect, based on the posted speed limit of the highway/freeway.
This will usually mean that turning traffic will have to stop in order to wait for a breach to turn, and this might cause inconvenience for vehicles that follow them but do not want to turn. This is why dedicated lanes and protected traffic signals for turning are sometimes provided. On busier intersections where a protected lane would be ineffective or cannot be built, turning may be entirely prohibited, and drivers will be required to "drive around the block" in order to accomplish the turn. Many cities employ this tactic quite often; in San Francisco, due to its common practice, making three right turns is known colloquially as a "San Francisco left turn". Likewise, as many intersections in Taipei City are too busy to allow direct left turns, signs often direct drivers to drive around the block to turn.
Turning rules are by no means universal. In New Zealand for example, left turning traffic must give way to opposing 'right turning' traffic i.e. traffic turning into your path (unless there are multiple lanes to turn into). This rule often confuses tourists.
On roads with multiple lanes, turning traffic is generally expected to move to the lane closest to the direction they wish to turn. For example, traffic intending to turn right will usually move to the rightmost lane before the intersection. Likewise, left-turning two rightmost lanes will be of authority; for example, in Brazil and elsewhere it is common for drivers to observe (and trust) the turn signals used by other drivers in order to make turns from other lanes. For example if several vehicles on the right lane are all turning right, a vehicle may come from the next-to-right lane and turn right as well, doing so in parallel with the other right-turning vehicles.
Pedestrians must often cross from one side of a road to the other, and in doing so may come into the way of vehicles traveling on the road. In many places pedestrians are entirely left to look after themselves, that is, they must observe the road and cross when they can see that no traffic will threaten them. Busier cities usually provide pedestrian crossings, which are strips of the road where pedestrians are expected to cross.
The actual appearance of pedestrian crossings varies greatly, but the two most common appearances are: (1) a series of parallel white stripes or (2) two long horizontal white lines. The former is usually preferred, as it stands out more conspicuously against the dark pavement.
Some pedestrian crossings also accompany a traffic signal which will make vehicles stop at regular intervals so the pedestrians can cross. Some countries have "intelligent" pedestrian signals, where the pedestrian must push a button in order to assert his intention to cross. The traffic signal will use that information to schedule itself, that is, when no pedestrians are present the signal will never pointlessly cause vehicle traffic to stop.
Pedestrian crossings without traffic signals are also common. In this case, the traffic laws usually states that the pedestrian has the right of way when crossing, and that vehicles must stop when a pedestrian uses the crossing. Countries and driving cultures vary greatly as to the extent to which this is respected.
Some jurisdictions forbid crossing or using the road anywhere other than at crossings, termed jaywalking. In other areas, pedestrians may have the right to cross where they choose, and have right of way over vehicular traffic while crossing.
In most areas, an intersection is considered to have a crosswalk, even if not painted, as long as the roads meet at approximate right angles. Examples of locations where this rule is not in effect are the United Kingdom and Croatia.
A level crossing is an at-grade intersection of a railway by a road. Because of safety issues, they are often equipped with closable gates, crossing bells and warning signs.
During business days in most major cities, traffic congestion reaches great intensity at predictable times of the day due to the large number of vehicles using the road at the same time. This phenomenon is called rush hour or peak hour, although the period of high traffic intensity may exceed one hour.
In the United States and Canada, several expressways have a special lane (called an "HOV Lane" - High Occupancy Vehicle Lane) that can only be used by cars carrying two (some locations-three) or more people. Also, many major cities have instituted strict parking prohibitions during rush hour on major arterial streets leading to and from the central business district. During designated weekday hours, vehicles parked on these primary routes are subject to prompt ticketing and towing at owner expense. The purpose of these restrictions is to make available an additional traffic lane in order to maximize available traffic capacity. Additionally, several cities offer a public telephone service where citizens can arrange rides with others depending on where they live and work. The purpose of these policies is to reduce the number of vehicles on the roads and thus reduce rush-hour traffic intensity.
Intersections have no signals or signage, and a particular road at a busy intersection may be dominant (that is, its traffic flows) until a break in traffic, at which time the dominance shifts to the other road where vehicles are queued. At the intersection of two perpendicular roads, a traffic jam may result if four vehicles face each other side-on.
During emergencies where evacuation of a heavily populated area is required, local authorities may institute contraflow lane reversal, in which all lanes of a road lead away from a danger zone regardless of their original flow. Aside from emergencies, contraflow may also be used to ease traffic congestion during rush hour or at the end of a sports event (where a large number of cars are leaving the venue at the same time). For example, the six lanes of the Lincoln Tunnel can be changed from three in-bound and three out-bound to a two/four configuration depending on traffic volume. The Brazilian highways Rodovia dos Imigrantes and Rodovia Anchieta connect São Paulo to the Atlantic coast. Almost all lanes of both highways are usually reversed during weekends to allow for heavy seaside traffic. The reversibility of the highways requires many additional highway ramps and complicated interchanges.