Definitions

Toscanini

Toscanini

[tos-kuh-nee-nee; It. taws-kah-nee-nee]
Toscanini, Arturo, 1867-1957, Italian conductor, internationally recognized as one of the world's great conductors. He studied cello at the Parma Conservatory, from which he graduated in 1885. After performing as a cellist with various minor orchestras in Italy, he went to Rio de Janeiro in 1886 to play in the opera orchestra there. Substituting as conductor, he demonstrated his ability to elicit an electrifying performance from the musicians, and he was engaged for the rest of the season.

Toscanini returned to Italy the next season (1886-87), and there subsequently conducted the premieres of Leoncavallo's Pagliacci (1892) and Puccini's La Bohème (1896) and the Italian premiere of Wagner's Götterdämmerung (1895). In 1898, Toscanini was appointed chief conductor and artistic director at La Scala, Milan, where he presented many new operas and the Italian premieres of many others, including Wagner's Die Meistersinger (1898) and Siegfried (1899).

From 1908 to 1914 he conducted at the Metropolitan Opera, New York City, where he gave American premieres of Puccini's Girl of the Golden West (1910), Wolf-Ferrari's Le donne curiose (1912), and other works. Toscanini returned to Italy during World War I. With the reorganized La Scala Orchestra he toured (1920-21) Europe and the United States and was artistic director of La Scala from 1921 to 1929. Upon his return to the United States, he conducted the New York Philharmonic from 1928 to 1936 and the NBC Symphony Orchestra, which was formed for him, from 1937. His other important engagements included the Bayreuth Festivals (1930, 1931), of which he was the first non-German conductor, the Salzburg Festivals (1934-36), and the Lucerne Festivals (1937-39). In 1936 he conducted the inaugural concert of the Palestine Symphony Orchestra in Tel Aviv. Consistently antifascist, he refused several times to appear in fascist countries. In 1954 he retired as conductor of the NBC Symphony Orchestra.

Toscanini commanded perfection from his orchestras and instilled them with remarkable energy. A tempestuous personality, he was nevertheless greatly respected by performers and was widely emulated by conductors. His artistry is preserved in recordings, notably of the symphonies of Beethoven and works by Brahms, Wagner, Verdi, and many others.

See B. H. Haggin, Conversations with Toscanini (1959); letters ed. by H. Sachs (2002); biographies by H. H. Taubman (1950), S. Chotzinoff (1956), D. Ewen (rev. ed. 1960), B. H. Haggin (1967), and H. Sachs (1978); studies by R. C. Marsh (1956) and P. C. Hughes (2d enl. ed. 1970), and H. Sachs (1991).

(born March 25, 1867, Parma, Italy—died Jan. 16, 1957, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Italian conductor. Toscanini entered a conservatory at age nine, studying cello, piano, and composition. He began his professional life as a cellist. After substituting for an indisposed conductor in Giuseppe Verdi's Aïda (Buenos Aires, 1886), he conducted in various Italian opera houses, giving the premieres of I Pagliacci (1892) and La Bohème (1896). He was appointed musical director of La Scala, Milan, in 1898, and of the Metropolitan Opera, New York City, in 1908. Principally known for his readings of Verdi's operas and Beethoven's symphonies, he also gave remarkable performances of the music of Richard Wagner. Toscanini conducted the New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra from 1928 to 1936. In 1930 he became the first non-German to conduct at Bayreuth, but he stopped performing in Germany to protest Nazi policies. The NBC Orchestra was formed for him in 1937, and he conducted it until his retirement in 1954.

Learn more about Toscanini, Arturo with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 25, 1867, Parma, Italy—died Jan. 16, 1957, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Italian conductor. Toscanini entered a conservatory at age nine, studying cello, piano, and composition. He began his professional life as a cellist. After substituting for an indisposed conductor in Giuseppe Verdi's Aïda (Buenos Aires, 1886), he conducted in various Italian opera houses, giving the premieres of I Pagliacci (1892) and La Bohème (1896). He was appointed musical director of La Scala, Milan, in 1898, and of the Metropolitan Opera, New York City, in 1908. Principally known for his readings of Verdi's operas and Beethoven's symphonies, he also gave remarkable performances of the music of Richard Wagner. Toscanini conducted the New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra from 1928 to 1936. In 1930 he became the first non-German to conduct at Bayreuth, but he stopped performing in Germany to protest Nazi policies. The NBC Orchestra was formed for him in 1937, and he conducted it until his retirement in 1954.

Learn more about Toscanini, Arturo with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Toscanini's Ice Cream Company (known simply as Toscanini's or Tosci's) is an ice cream parlor and café in Cambridge, Massachusetts, founded in 1982. It is known worldwide for excellent ice cream, and has been highly rated in the New York Times food section as well as in Gourmet magazine.

Toscanini's original (and presently only) location is at 899 Main St. in Central Square. Other locations have included the Someday Café in Somerville, Massachusetts (closed August 2006), a location in the MIT student center (closed December 2000), and a location on Massachusetts Avenue in Harvard Square (closed December 2006). Toscanini's ice cream can also be found in some restaurants and supermarkets in the Boston area, such as Whole Foods Market.

Owner Gus Rancatore recently published an Amazon Short with author Helen Epstein, entitled Ice Cream Man: 25 Years at Toscanini's, presenting a personal story of how Toscanini's came to be. The short has spent several weeks on Amazon's top ten list.

On January 17, 2008 the business was seized by the Massachusetts Department of Revenue because of failure to pay more than $167,000 in taxes dating back to 2000. An overwhelming amount of support from the local community and beyond provided the owners with more than $30,000 toward satisfying the tax bill, and a plan was devised to pay the balance. After being closed for eight days, Toscanini's Ice Cream and Coffee Shop re-opened for business on January 25.

Flavors observed Jan 21, 2007 at 899 Main Street:

Ice cream

Sorbet

  • Champagne Sorbet
  • Chocolate Orange Sorbet

References

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