Region (pop., 2001 prelim.: 3,460,835), west-central Italy. It covers 8,877 sq mi (22,992 sq km), and its capital is Florence. Originally settled by Etruscans circa 1000 BC, Tuscany came under Roman rule in the 3rd century BC. It was a Lombard duchy in the 6th century AD. It comprised several independent city-states in the 12th–13th centuries, which were subsequently united under the Medici family of Florence. Tuscany passed to the house of Lorraine in 1737 and to Sardinia and the Kingdom of Italy in the 1860s. The region suffered severe damage in World War II and extensive floods in 1966. Its mineral resources include the world-famous Carrara marble. Its agricultural products include olives, olive oil, wines, and livestock. Tourism is important at its historical centres, including Florence and Pisa.
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