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Tooke, John Horne, 1736-1812, English radical politician and philologist. Born John Horne, he adopted the name Tooke in 1782 after being designated heir to the estate of a rich friend, William Tooke. He became (1760) an Anglican priest but soon abandoned his clerical duties for politics. He was a strong supporter of John Wilkes until 1771, when he broke with him and founded the Constitutional Society to promote parliamentary reform and support for the American colonists. He was fined and imprisoned (1778) for attempting to raise funds to aid the victims of the government "murder" at Lexington and Concord. In 1794, in a period of repression of radical agitation, Tooke was tried for treason but acquitted. In 1801 he was elected to Parliament, but in the same year the government passed an act (specifically directed against him) that disqualified clergy from sitting in the House of Commons. Tooke's later years were devoted to literary pursuits. His Epea Pteroenta, or the Diversions of Purley (1786-1805) was an early attempt at scientific language study.
Tooke, Thomas, 1774-1858, British economist, b. St. Petersburg, Russia. A successful businessman, he began to speak on behalf of free trade before Parliamentary committees and was one of the founders of the Political Economy Club (1821). His History of Prices (6 vol., 1838-57) is a classic exposition on the economics of prices. A pioneer of the empirical method in economics, Tooke worked extensively to understand the causes behind price fluctuations, investigating such variables as changing seasons, new machinery, and monetary policies. He was a staunch critic of trade barriers, opposing any governmental restriction on foreign trade.
Tooke's Pantheon, full title Tooke's Pantheon of the Heathen Gods and Illustrious Heroes, was a work on Greek mythology.

The Jesuit Francois Pomey authored the Pantheum mythicum seu fabulosa deorum historia. The Pantheum mythicum became the mythological handbook of the following two centuries. Classical scholar Samuel Petiscus, engaged by the publisher to correct the sixth edition, advises the "Friendly Reader" that this book, deriving from Boccaccio, Giraldi, and Conti, was invaluable in the classical instruction of "studious youths".

It was translated into English in 1698 by Andrew Tooke, who was silent about the author of the original. It became known as Tooke’s Pantheon of the Heathen Gods and Illustrious Heroes and was reprinted twenty-three times by 1771. It was published as "adapted for the use of students of every age and either sex" in America as late as 1859.

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26 March 2006

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