Eventually, one uses both the technique and it's supplementary energetic qualities for self-preservation, both in combative contexts, and in regular life. However, the hurdle for any student is the wuwei method of practice, which is simply by rote. One practices the same thing in a loop format, until eventually the body does it without stopping to think, making one able to move without thinking. The ability to move at the speed of thought is the idea.
This seems to be a distinction between "internal" and "external" styles. Internal boxing consciously controls the body to conform to the appropriate frame in the moment as it is occuring, while external boxing encodes itself with frames that automatically react at the appropriate angle. Nejia styles use one movement and change within it to adapt to many circumstances, while Shaolin has many movements to adapt to each situation; so there are many forms to display the frames to defend against different situations in different ways.
In both internal and external styles, lineage disciples of a master usually must pass an initial test of single-minded practice, both to test a potential inheritor's strength of character, and to provide the laoshi a foundation to layer more things on at later stages of instruction. However, when these stories are passed on, we sometimes see them as reasons to listen to instructors for sentimental reasons. Really, it is the only way to ascend the "holy platform" of zhuan zhang (baguazhang). The first phase of training is softening and loosening the bodies skeletal and connective tissues, both for increased energetic conductivity, and for increased range of movement within and around the joints.
Bagua's character trait is elusive footwoork to create dodges, neutralizing palm maneuvers, entrapped foot strikes, hip throws and trip tosses. It also has the ability to uproot and discharge like taijiquan, and to strike with explosive power, like hsing-i chuan, the sisters to the style.
The single palm change focuses on changing direction towards the inside of the circle (it's centerpoint being the adversary). The double palm change focuses on changing the direction to the outside, while simultaneously splitting one's force to both directions. All styles of bagua (zhuan zhang) have versions of at least these two techniques, plus many supplementary stationary training sets, two person patterns, and melee training. The Song Yongxiang style's forms are rarely seen. Until the laoshi doesn't have to worry that a solid foundation hasn't been laid through the single palm rote, the other choreographies remain untaught. The Song style is practiced by some of the members in the Beijing Bagua Research Association, and at Ditan Park.
WWW.8GUA.INFO: Song Changrong - was born to a wealthy family in Beijing. His family was somehow associated with Prince Su, the retainer of Dong Haichuan, and from the young Song was introduced to the founder of Baguazhang. Dong took a liking to the child and would visit his home on a regular basis. He would train Song in the courtyard, but trained him in various skills and exercises to increase the youngster’s strength and balance. When Song was about twelve years of age, Dong began teaching him the art of Baguazhang. Given the foundation what was built in the early years, Song excelled in the training and was considered as a child prodigy in the art. He became highly skilled in the lower basin palms. Dong trained him the use of the Seven Stars pole and Song became an expert in the use of the weapon. Song developed a very high level of skill in the Baguazhang. He was a friend with many of Dong’s other students, in particular Chang Chankuei. This was partial due to Song’s position in life; having grown up in the Imperial section he had only limited contact with the common people from outside the walls of the Forbidden City. This resulted in him having very few students. Gao Yisheng was once a student of Song, but after years of intense basic foundation practice asked his instructor for additional training. The dispute ended with Gao leaving in search of another instructor. After the death of Dong Haichuan in 1882, Song became head of the Bagua practitioners in the northern section of Beijing. Song Shutang was the nephew of Song Changrong and is reported to have carried on his teachings in Song Style Baguazhang. Additional research is needed to identify any of Song’s disciples: WWW.8GUA.INFO
Because Liu is a common Asian name (such as action star Lucy Liu for example) there are several Liu styles within the bagua lineages, such as:
Liu Jingru Liu Feng Chun Liu De Kuan Liu Hung Chieh Liu Baozhen Lu Shui Tian Shi Liu, (Shi Chih Tung, Shih Chi Tung, Shi Ji Tong, Shi JiTong, Shi Ji Dong, Shi JiDong, Shi Shi)
Guoliang gives a demonstration of Shi Shi styles pattern sets on YouTube. The late Wang Peisheng, gives a demo of the DeKuan version of linear bagua forms. Both the Gao and 9 dragon families have linear patterns as well. The Song style has not been demonstrated on youtube.
Shi Ji Tong Bio
WWW.8GUA.INFO: Shi Jidong (1837-1909) - was the third disciple of Dong Haichuan. He was from Cheng Si Shao Zhai village, Ji County in Hebei Province. Liu Sui, in his book Orthodox Baguazhang, states that his direct ancestor, Shi Jidong, was the third disciple of Dong Haichuan. He became Dong’s adopted son-in-law, when Dong adopted his wife, who was reportedly a relative. After leaving service with the Imperial Family, Dong taught his art in the homes of many of his students. Shi Jidong offered Dong to stay with his family and he accepted. It was custom of that time for people without relatives to adopt an adult person to enable them to be cared for and attended as they aged. They would live with the adoptive family and the family would supply their clothes, food, and expenses. It was customary for them to ensure that they received a proper burial as well. This relationship allowed Shi Jidong to learn a high level of art from Dong Haichuan, one that was greater than many of the other disciples. Shi Jidong was a cousin of Yin Fu, the top disciple of Dong Haichuan. Sometime between 1875 and 1882, Yang Janfeng, a disciple of Yin Fu, got into a fight with Yin Fu’s cousin, Shi Jidong, and beat him badly. The beaten Shi came to Yin Fu and asked if he could become one of his students and study Baguazhang. Yin thought that it would not be right for Shi to kowtow to him, since they were cousins, and instead took Shi to meet Dong Haichuan. At the request of Yin Fu, Shi was accepted as Dong Haichaun’s third disciple. His branch of the art is known as Shi Style Baguazhang. Shi Jidong had several disciples to include Yang Rongben and Han Fushun .
Han Fushen - was from Cheng Nanpeng Village in Ji County, Hebei Province. He was illiterate and worked as a blacksmith at the Yi He Lumberyard in Beijing, which was owned by Shi Jidong. He was described as sincere, honest, diligent and conscientious. Out of concern for the people of his community, he desired to learn Baguazhang. Shi Jidong accepted him as a student and also received instruction from Dong Haichuan, who was living with the Shi family at that time. He was also known as Han Liu. Little more is known about Han other than he produced one student that had an impact on the art of Baguazhang. That student was Wu Junshan, who is responsible for promoting Wu Style Baguazhang. Any additional information is welcome.
Yang Rongben - little is known about Yang Rongben. He is noted for having three primary students that carried on his teachings. His notable students were Cao Rongting, Di Zhaolong (he authored Secret Wudang Baguazhang), and Peng Zhaokuang: WWW.8GUA.INFO
The Shi (Shi Shi, not Cheng Shi) style is taught in the Altai Mountains, Basargino Russia. The late Di Zhaolong also has other students thriving with the style. In BK Frantzis main work on the nejia boxing arts, he describes how Dong Hai chuan taught some of his students how to refine there movements to have the applications of an entire kua in a small movement. From reports on how Song Yongxiang was trained, he may have also received such style of instruction, as well as Shi Liu (aka Zhenbeng). Daos have a profound understanding of change. Dong Hai Chuan had an ability to recognize what different echelon martial artists would be able to change and what would be dificult to change. So rather than attempt to eradicate past martial knowledge from the body and build a new foundation, he would take what you already knew and add baguas principals to greatly enhance ones abilities, while strengthening ones weaknesses. Song solely learned bagua. Shi Liu apparently practiced continuous kicking. Probably a chines version of Tang Soo Do traditions. In fact, similar to the Emei Baguazhang manual, which has a wealth of collective Daoist zuan zang theory, the Shi style has a carbon copy format of one of its many texts (translated by Joseph Crandall from Di Zhaolongs scrolls) ie, the 3 year 36 songs and the ten year 48 songs. Unfortunately, bagua cannot be learned over night. Fortunately, he has already posted the text on the internet, and it can be found here at wiki as well:
Shi Ji Dong (Shih Chi Tung, 1835-1908) was nicknamed Zhenbang. People called him "Shi Liu" (Shi the 6th). He was born in Jxian county of Hebei province. He was Yin Fu's cousin. During childhood he studied tantui and was skillful in continuous kicking. Yin Fu advised him to study from Dong Hai Ch'uan and became Dong's third student. At the end of his life Dong lived in his house and his wife became an adopted daughter of Dong. --from http://www.geocities.com/ottawakungfu/250Bagau002B.htm
[The following is from --http://trinity.psnw.com/~dlmurray/classic.html]
Shi's 36 Stanzas
Joseph Crandall sent these over a period of time to the Bagua List. The following is a forward by him and some additional information from Jarek Szymanski sent to the Bagua List.
Forward: This is something I translated a long time ago and just dug out of my files. To redo the mandarin would be too much work at this point. If you are really interested I might scan the characters and send them out as a jpeg. The lineage of Shi Jitong Bagua has a 36 Stanza poem and a 48 Stanza poem similar to the ones promulgated by the Liang and Cheng lineages. These stanza come to us courtesy of Di Zhaolong, the current (I think) authority on this style. Shi Ji Tong was a nephew of Dong Haichuan.
Shi Jidong (not Shi Jitong) was Dong's adopted daughter's husband. Actually Shi arranged that his wife became Dong's adopted daughter so that she could take good care of the old master. Dong spent last years of his life in Shi's house in Beijing (Shi was one of the wealthiest disciples and owner of Yihe Timber Mill).
-Jarek Szymanski Shanghai, China
Epilogue: This song has 36 stanzas. Bagua's true significance is contained herein. Memorize and try to understand them and practice hard. Skill and hard work will not fail the conscientious person. Practice hard and practice harder. Over a long period of time, its value is lasting. You will become stronger and never stop gaining skills. Raise the martial spirit to be cheerful and healthy.
1. The head is held up. The chin is tucked in. The body is held straight. Depress the waist. Swell the belly. The steps are empty and full. Sink the shoulders. Hang the elbows. Reach with the front arm. Turn the wrist. Straighten the palm. Pull back the index finger.
2. One arm pushes out straight. One arm is bent. The eyes gaze at the tiger's mouth of the straight arm. The straight arm pushes and seizes. The bent arm pulls the bowstring. This is like using a bow to shoot a big vulture.
3. The tiger's mouth is curved. The palm is hollow. Pull back the fingers. Straighten the palm. The fingers are held upwards. Push and seize. Pull the bow. Defend the chest and lungs. The practice of bent knee stepping trains the leg skills.
4. Bend the knees and bow the legs. The steps are like walking in mud. In walking the circle, the outside foot turns inwards and the inside foot moves straight. Turn the waist. Depress the waist. Raise up the anus. The form is like pushing a grindstone round and round.
5. Turn the waist. Turn the neck. Depress the waist. Swell the belly. The foot grips the ground. The knees bend and the legs bow. The body follows the steps and the turning hands follow the body's movements. Weave together inhaling and exhaling and then transform them to chewing up and spitting out the enemy.
6. In walking, the palm and body should not lean to the sides. Do not lean forwards or backwards. Turn the waist and tighten the lower abdomen to connect the limbs. In stepping, the steps sink and the body has the appearance of being even and steady.
7. Moment is practiced on the left and right sides, Reciprocating without breaks or stopping. Aim for being stable and full. Become level and true. The spirit can tranform and grow from immature to mature.
8. In the piercing palm, the hand goes out under the elbow. Avoid the full and draw near the empty to achieve skill. The foot treads the center gate and searches out the way. The corner become the sides, enter and flow with the person's movements.
9. The hand method of the piercing palm must be remembered well. The rear hand pierces out and the front hand retracts. They must be mutually coordinated and complement each other. Mobility and agility display your talent.
10. In walking the circle, persue three levels in your stepping practice. First practice the upper level frame, which is high. The middle level bends the knees and the posture gradually squats. The lower level stresses getting the thighs level with the knees.
11. The tongue sticks to the upper palate. Inhale and exhale through the nose. The qi sinks to the dantian like being guided. Movement must be coordinated with the breathing. They complement each other and create agility.
12: Skill and talent smoothly follow the waist and leg movement; The stepping method transforms the walking with many turns; Upper and lower coordinate and become one thing; Mobility and agility must be harmonized.
13: The toe-in stepping form makes a triangle. The toe and kneecap are aligned. The toe-out stepping form makes an eight character shape (/ ). The toe and the heel meet together.
14. In the Upper Step (shang bu), the rear foot steps past the front foot. In the Advance Step (jin bu), the front foot moves to the front. In the Withdraw Step (che bu), the front foot steps past the rear foot. In the Retreat Step (tui), the rear foot moves to the rear.
15. Esteem virtue, do not esteem strength. Esteem wisdom, do not esteem courage. If you esteem strength and esteem courage; Sooner or later it must fall into the void.
16. The body is like a swimming dragon, a wild goose leaping into the air. It is like a tiger strikes, a turtle swims, a snake's movement. Vary the postures continuously without stopping. Move to the corners and sides, advance and retreat, talk and laugh in the center.
17. This palm is mysterious in walking the circle. The stepping method causes victory, the foot is strong and skilled. Toe-out, toe-in, arcing and turning, people cannot fathom it. Look to the front and now to the rear. Leave no fixed trail.
18. The foot treads the central gate and searches out the way. The hands follow the enemy's condition and flow in the opposite direction; Rise and do not fall, occupy the center; The enemy's preparations are in vain and he finds it diffucult to defend himself.
Here is another. This one is a toughie, a bit esoteric. I took some time going over it again and changing some of my original work, but I can't guarentee total accuracy on this one.
19. The outgoing hand must be one, it must not be two. The idea of many overcoming the few must be followed. If you can understand, you can get this central idea. Superiority is commonly had in grasping the center.
20. The outgoing hand techniques follow the man. To seal the enemy requires a lot of skill. The triangle pattern steps are very subtle. The hands in the cross shape form are beneficial to attack
21. The out-going hand flows with the enemy's intention. Rise to defend, attack to the left and right. If the enemy retreats, your front foot advances. If the enemy advances, your rear foot moves.
22. When the enemy advances, I move to evade his attack. I give up my position and cause him to fall into emptiness. I turn back and with one strike invariably cut to his center. To defeat the center and take the victory requires skill.
Here is #23. I must confess that it does not make much sense to me. My confusion revolves around the interplay between two characters zheng (true, upright, correct) and qi (wonderful, suprise). I have seen these two characters used together before and the best that I could guess based on the context was a sense of coming and going. However in this poetry the meaning is much more difficult for me to grasp. If anyone has a clue I'd appreciate some enlightenment.
23. The enemy is true, I am true suprise; The enemy is suprise, I am suprise true. A soft body pulls the rudder. Flowing water drives a light boat.
24. A strike comes to my right and my left responds. A strike comes to my front and my back responds. I coordinate my response with my breathing. If I do this others find it difficult to respond to me.
25. Close and roll, defend to the left and right. Turning back the head in retreat turns into an advance. If pressed close, move farther away. Commit to a strong body form.
26. The flicking palm conceals the body as you advance. Use the hooking palm as you retreat and then advance. Attack the enemy's front side as you advance. The flick and hook, up and down, aid and support each other.
27. An arm stretched out from the side of the body reveals an empty space. The chest exposed to open air induces people to attack. Draw out the enemy to take the advantage and advance. Bind, mix, seal, insert, and strive to master the movement.
28. With the overturning body palm method, defense becomes the attack. Overturn, roll, arc and turn to follow the man's motion. Submit to the objective, ignore the subjective. Pierce, grip, hang, and float, agile functions.
29. The Baguazhang method is not a blocking frame. I wish to choose flowing from my center. The outgoinh hand must choose the way to approach. I issue later but arrive first cannot be successfully defended against.
30. Touch and stick, continuously follow, don't loose the lead. Don't block, don't frame, flow with the enemy's nature. Yeild the position and strive for mastery of motion. Moving supports motion, moving supports stillness
31. The man is hard, I am soft and completely rely on walking; Bring about the condition to deprive him of the first hand; Turning and entering I flow to the man's back; Soft turns to hard and sticking becomes issuing.
32. When hardness is presented first then softness must be concealed inside. When softness is presented first it must be coordinated with hardness. Hardness conceals softness in its center, softness contains hardness. Hardness and softness are transformed in the stepping.
33. The eyes are linked to the hands which are linked to the waist which is linked to the legs. When the whole body is harmonized and coordinated, then when you issue stength it is whole. Regardless of whether your movements are straight or curved, the walking must be stable. When you get the power and get the posture, then you will be able to control the enemy.
34. When jing and shen are connected with qi, the posture will be filled. You will then be calm and composed, not terrified. The eyes detecting the enemy's emotion is the first point. The brain is the master and takes charge of the movement.
35. For the hands to attack the enemy, the waist and legs must be quick. Advance and retreat completely rely on the feet. Understand that walking be transformed by turning has many meanings. The true significance of Bagua is contained within this.
36. Bagua's true significance is not a mystery. Go smoothly, understand transformation, and walk the circle many times. Don't block, don't frame, don't lose the lead. Sacrifice your own interests for the sake of flowing with the enemy's emotion.
Shi Style Baguazhang Oral Traditions: The 48 Skill Methods
Forward: Here are some more goodies from Shi Style Baguazhang. Please bear in mind that I am probably not the best qualified to translate this stuff, but no one else seems to want to do it. Chinese characters often have more than one meaning. In choosing the best meaning I must rely on my own experience with the art and with fighting. Someone else might have another interpretation based on their experience. The martial arts has its own jargon, characters will be used in a martial context that will never show up in a common dictionary. Unless one is privy to the martial meaning of the character, the sentence ends up making no sense. Unfortunately I make mistakes in this area, so you will have to bear with me. Because of the varying ways in which Chinese texts can be interpreted it makes sense to read as many translations as possible in order to sort through the chaff and pick out what pearls may be within. I would encourage anyone with alternate translations to publish and compare with what I submit so that we may all grow in knowledge in the arts.
1. Shen Fa -- The Body Method:
The body is like a swimming dragon, a wild goose soaring in the air. Zigzagging, curved and straight, it moves like a snake. Overturn, roll, revolve and turn are dominated by the waist. Move to the corners and side-to-side, advance and retreat, talking and laughing in the center.
2. Mu Ce - Range Estimation:
To resist the enemy when you cross hands, you must first estimate the range. If there is no movement, gaze at the man's shoulder. Calmly and carefully examine his posture. Seek out the way to go. Reconnoitre and reflect. Only the eyes look forward.
3. Yanming - Sharp Eyes:
The heart's emotions are reflected in the eyes like a mirror. See the situation create the emotion, then the posture responds. If you are very fearful and the mind is confused, your eyes will not follow. The hands will be occupied, the feet confused, and you will lose your cleverness
4. Xianxing - In Advance:
The eyes first seek out the enemy's condition. The four sides and eight directions need to be observed clearly. Allow your movement to change irregularly many times. What enters my eye, I instantly understand.
5. Shen Shi - Careful Posture:
The eyes watch the four directions, form and posture are understood. The ears hear in eight directions, movement and stillness are known. The feet tread the eight trigrams, walk the complete circle. Look ahead and behind, capture the enemy's emotion.
6. Bu Fa - Stepping Method:
If you wish to move the extremities, the root must move first. Quick hands are inferior to agile stepping. Turning, moving, entering, yeilding only require half a step. The outer boundary is peaceful, the whole form changes.
7. Ta Zong Men - Tread the Center Gate:
Stride forward like a tiger and with the aspect of a hero. Advance and retreat, look around, look for the enemy's trace. The feet tread the center gate and interlink with the enemy's path. The enemy has to defend against strikes to the center.
8. Xie Chu Cheng Ru - Diagonal Leaving, Straight Entering:
With footsteps firm and stable, seek adroit movement. By advancing, retreating, turning, and shifting, seek out the enemy's path. Walking follows the triangle. The toes grip the ground. Diagonal leaving, straight entering, is wonderful and unlimited.
9. Xu Jin - Continuous Advancing:
Develop an offensive posture, the enemy can not move back. Continue advancing with strikes that are difficult to evade. Step and advance the body, then step to the front. The hands, feet, and body must be one and arrive together.
10. Lian Zhui - Continuous Chasing:
I advance. If the enemy retreats, I must follow. One step or two steps, I am continuously stepping to follow. Closely press the enemy so there is no way for him to flee. Continuously advance, victory comes in one step.
11. Xu shi - Empty and Full:
For agile movement in the legs, empty and full need to be understood If you relax the rules then you will be double weighted and sluggish. With changing movements and turning movements the empty foot is agile. With the weight in the full foot, steadiness is preserved.
12. Jin-tui - Advance and Retreat:
The enemy retreats, I advance with my front foot first. The enemy advances, I retreat by moving with my rear foot. The stepping method of advancing and retreating must be agile, Turning, changing, and transforming in accordance with the enemy's emotion
13. Zhang Fa - Palm Method:
In attack and defence, both palms must be lively. The rear palm goes out and the front palm returns. The tiger's mouth and ox's tongue work together: "Follow the curve to arrive at the straight", understand the body's peril.
14. Gong Fang Xiang Ji - Mutual Attack and Defence:
In mutual attack and defence you must remember firmness. My hand goes out, and defends against the man's strike. Advance to attack, defend and ward-off, turn and transform quickly. When you can attack and be successful in defence, your skill starts to become high.
15. Gong Fang Huying - Attack and Defence Working Together:
The hands, going out and blocking, have to work together. Issuing is not correct and yet it is not presumptuous to issue. The postures of attack and defence change many times. Issuing is not the main thing. You must defend against the opponent's issuing.
16. Zhao Fa - Technique Method:
The front arm reaches straight, forming the tiger's mouth. The rear arm hides the ox tongue. Swallowing and spitting, opening and closing, flow with the enemy's emotion. Work together with change, close the enemy's posture.
17. Fa Jing - Issuing Energy:
Store up energy till plentiful, like a bent bow. Issue energy like an arrow, swiftly away from the bowstring. With a single purpose, in one direction, strength issues from the back. Have a sunk appearance, be relaxed completely, qi ought to be first.
18. Yin Shi Li Dao - Adroitly Guiding Action According to Circumstances:
If he is high, strike him low. If he is low, strike him high. With a fat man, strike at him from either corner. If you meet someone long and thin, press toward the inside. The old man cannot move to block.
19. Jie Zhao - Make Contact and Gesture:
The enemy man comes gesturing. Don't block or frame him. Flow with his incoming posture only once. Moving or still, quick or slow, you must close and slap. Follow curve, move toward the straight, multiply his defects.
20. Jie Na - Explaining Seizing:
Qin Na must use a double hand motion. Both hands seize, oneself is empty. No matter what, Qin Na flows with his motion. Pierce the nose or jab the eyeballs and the enemy's posture relaxes.
21. Jie Na - Explaining Seizing:
He seizes me and the flowing posture moves. The flowing posture moves and the seized posture is empty. Even if his Qin Na is very adroit, My movement follows the man and the seize has no skill.
22. Bu Zhong Qin Na - Do Not Stress Seizing:
The Bagua palm method does not stress seizing. If both your hands, seize you suffer a setback. You are only seizing the man and it is not like striking. Depress and bend the man over, many changes are not advisable.
23. Feng Bi - Seal and Close:
The issuing hand flows and follows the enemy's intention to move. To seal and close the enemy I need a lot of skill. If I can seal firmly the posture of the enemy, Victory employs having my hand in the center.
24. Feng Bi - Seal and Close:
Perhaps he has weapons in both hands and is quick like the wind. With one coming and one going, he displays remarkable skill. Close his left hand then his right hand is not used. Both hands coming at the same time is emptyness.
25. Huan Zhao - Returning Techniques:
Sealing and closing strongly is a technique for 'defending the body'. Vigorously seal the man's techniques and do a technique in return. Stick continuously, following and leading the enemy's techniques. Be neither too close nor too far, flow with the enemy's techniques.
26. Yi Gao Yi Zhao - High Skill of One Move:
The strong are victorious over the weak, and their strength shows off their ability. The quick strike the slow, and their skill is in their speed. In these cases the High Skill of One Move is very much needed. Bind their hands and bind their feet to control them.
27. Rangkai Gong Shi - Defend by Getting Out of the Way:
If the other party has the strength of 1000 pounds, issue quickly. If his incoming posture is as violent as a mountain slide, Get out of the way and attack, take advantage of his gaps. Be decisive and mobile, swiftly do a technique in return.
28. Xie Shan - Diagonal Dodging:
The enemy comes in straight and quick like an arrow. First issue to control the his brave and fierce posture. Only meet this emotion, it is not appropriate to retreat. Diagonally moving, dodge and yeild like a spirit.
29. Bu Lan Bu Jia - Don't Block, Don't Frame:
Even when the enemy's posture is ruthless, you have no fear. He strikes at you and you defend against him. Toe out on the diagonal, the way is close. Don't block, don't frame, only once.
30. You Di - Lead the Enemy:
When the enemy doesn't attack, I use motion to draw him out. When his attack comes, I walk to the empty space. I do not rely on hand methods, I rely on stepping methods. Enticed to advance, he falls into air and is subject to my control.
31. Hua Jie - Transformation Understood:
Vertical can understand horizontal, horizontal understands vertical. When a split comes from an oblique angle, I split him. When a leg comes, if the leg is understood, you understand and then attack. The hands and legs go out and steps turn many times.
32. Yuan Xing Hua Jie - Circular Transformation Understood:
He surrounds me and I surround him. With circular turning and walking he can only attack air. Surround, surround one posture, the trail is not fixed. Completely rely on the stepping method and powerful walking.
33. Xie Zheng Huan Hua - Diagonal and True Transformed:
There is straightness within diagonal and diagonalness within straight. The diagonal/true transformation truly is wonderful. When you meet a strong enemy, a strong attack is demanded. Hide suprises within suprises, and the enemy falls into a trap.
34. Zhi Ren - Control the Man:
To control a man, one ought to pierce up towards his eyes. If both eyes suffer damage, then the enemy will be in a bind. The importance of the damage suffered, though small in degree, is not understood. A poke in the eyes is a victory of 1,000 techniques.
35. Dong Jie - Movement Understood:
Use stillness to control motion, leisurely await the work. Use motion to control stillness, rely on skill. The man doesn't know me, but I know the man. Meet strength with wisdom, seek the weak with flaunting techniques.
36. Kai He - Open and CLose:
If you desire to close, the correct form is to open first. Observe that open defends, and closed can know the power. Open is in the center of closed and closed is in the center of open. They can meet at the origin and instantly know minutia.
37. Qu Shou You Zhun - The Outgoing Hand Is the Standard:
It does not matter if he has 1,000 techniques and quickness in 1,000 things; If he is not able to be centered, his effort are in vain. Not stopping is important and not sending out hand. The outgoing hand must instantly be in the enemy's center.
38. Shulian: Skilled/practiced/proficient:
Attack and defend, advance and retreat, because the postures are different. 100 refinements make steel, bitter practice makes you complete. First aim towards being firm and solid, seek to be level and straight. Spiritual wonder is transformed, skill is created in the center.
39. Lingmin - Sensitive/keen/agile/acute:
If the mind is sensitive, its tranformations are inexhaustable. If the eyes are sharp, they can make out the enemy's emotion. If the stepping is agile, the mechanical power is adaptable. If the hand is keen, controlling the enemy is the standard.
40. Tu Na - Giving and Receiving:
Inhaling and exhaling, giving and receiving, are controlled from the nose. First it flows throught the Du Mai. Then continues to the Ren Mai to complete the cycle. Qi moves through the body, the will directs its motion.
41. Lizheng Zhudong - Work Hard for the Initiative:
When fighting, you must be able to endure the enemy's atttack. First seek to be invincible, then return the attack. If the posture and surroundings are inferior, toe out and escape. The center having moved, strive for the initiative.
42. Ceshen - On Ones Side:
In the Snake Form Palm, the posture the body overturns to the side. The body must have a twisting movement to use the Snake Form. Both arms go out straight to protect the skull. Expanding and contracting, turning sideways, Snake Spits out its Tongue.
43. Niu Yao - Twist the Waist:
When the enemy attacks, I stick to his body. My hands and feet return to defend and transform him. Turning and revolving, left and right, the waist twists and turns. Take a turn for the better and be out of danger; defeat demands victory.
44. Dang Ji Ji Fa - Prompt Issuing:
The mind takes charge of life, the eyes gaze. The hands and feet coordinate for carefull attack and defence. Search for the man's gaps, strive for motion. Issue promptly, don't hesitate.
45. Bi Shi Ji Xu - Avoid the Enemy's Strength, Strike at his Weakness:
When the enemy punches at your face, Take the lower way and instantly open up. Take him by suprise, unprepared for the attack. Avoid his strength and attack his weak points, victory comes.
46. Ji Ting - Avoid Stopping:
The chaotic original one qi walks heaven's limits. Walking, but not walking too far, the feet change and transform. Bagua's functional movement consists of the walking movements. Standing fixed when convenient becomes fallen flowers.
47. Luo Kong Bu Wen - Fall into Emptyness No Disorder:
Stepping must be lively and the gestures must be accurate. Then, to use 'Falling into Emptiness', the mind must not be disorderly. Curves interlink with curves and are never used up. When there are circles within circles, transformation is created.
48. Li Yi Wei Xian - Ceremony and Righteousness take Precedence:
Esteem virtue, esteem ceremony, don't esteem strength. Esteem wisdom, esteem righteousness, don't esteem bravery. Esteem strength, esteem bravery, strength is the core of strength. When your skill is high, then with one touch, your enemy falls into emptiness.
In Martial Arts, techniques come from theory. If the theory is
substantial, then skill can advance. They supplement each other and
both can rise high. Constantly improve, have no fixed bounderies. The
Inner Gate leads the way, the teacher transmits the instruction.
First, toward the firm and stable, seek the level and true. The
martial sea has roads, diligently use the boat. Spiritual wonder is
transformed and practice is halfway complete.
Within the pantheon of Chinese Martial Arts, the three Orthodox internal martial sciences are Laosandao (Taijiquan), Zhongnan Shan Boxing (Xing Yi/Hsing-i), and zuan zang (baguazhang/pa kua chang). Sun Lu Tang coined the phrase Three Sisters. The students of each train together for many reasons, one being that it is a priority not to hurt or be hurt by your kongfu brothers and sisters in class training. Of course, outside of class is ones own business. One has to study for thirteen years, maybe 15 years for regular civilians, in order to acquire the specialized bagua skill of moving like a ghost. This sounds esoteric, but when one learns to float omnidirectionally almost simultaneously through seemless miscellaneous footwork, one can slip into the blindspots of a persons consciousness to appear and reappear in front or behind an attacker. Fortunately with the health benifits of these standing yoga-like arts, one extends ones life span. Hsing-i tends to square off, wait, invade space, and shoot like a cannon at point blank range. Taichi tends to wait while holding ground, absorb or magnetize to the force of attack, and bounce one away like a bran new trampoline that barely moves. Though bagua has the densest tactical arsenal of the three, taichi (laosandao) encapsulates the pentultimate nejia skill. Both hsing-i and bagua have almost parallel techniques, but the eerie dynamic of taichi masters, which carries over to the other two sisters, is that at its highest level of defense and attack, the proponent barely moves ones body because theres so much internal stuff going on. However, the effect on the attacker is literally being sent flying. Event 10-20 feet. This is hard to believe, considering a solid football hit dislodges the body and suspends it in space, but it wont move more than several feet. And they are running at full speeds. With these yin techniques, the initial contact is not too brash, but the ground and the environment come fast. Usually only lineage holders have these abilities, and top notch students who have no life but kongfu. Hsing-i has the most immediate self-defense success ratio. One of the most famous expressions within taijichuan circles is: In Taichi, to win, first you must lose! You must lose any adrenalized will towards an attacker through hi level yielding and neutralizing of elses actions, and you must be enthusiastic about losing your balance from being uprooted by superior skilled taiji brothers. Because of its linear physics training, Hsing-i masters hit once. Bagua hits from several confounding angles while trapping and throwing. This is necessary to defend against many attackers. Using one attacker to defend against many. Bagua employs waves and the vortex of multidimensional spirals, and Taiji employs the unified force of contracting and expanding spheres. Out of Malaysia, I Liq Chuan seems to be making itself known as the new baby brother to the three sisters, while Liu He Ba Fa (water Boxing) is an encyclopedia of the three sisters, and is usually studied after basic mastery of the three. Shaolin also has internal styles, and internal external hybrid styles such as Wing Chun and Mei Hua Chuan (Plum Flower Fist)
It is imperative to note, that discussing these martial skills for societal awareness via hard and soft copies of writings and actually acquiring these abilities are two different scenarios. Especially considering that individual practitioners of these styles practice them for different personal reasons. More often than not, practitioners of these styles tend to practice them for health or meditative purposes, rather than wanting to fight a lot. There are only so much herbs, so Tradition Chinese Doctors prescribe martial arts for rejuvinative means. Combative purists promote the martial side, because they were kept secret for obvious reasons for so long. Like most martial arts that have lasted generations, they can be fatal or hospitalize. Some of the best fighters started learning martial arts because they were frail with sickness in their youth. Out of their humanitarian compassion, masters taught them, and they eventually became not only healthy, but strong even with thin bodies.
Allthatwithstanding, without the dynamic of tranquilty during application and practice, the dantian abilities cannot come in to play, hence internal power cannot fully come into play, and using these styles to actually fight without gong or dantian cultivation practice would be like trying to cut wood with a soup spoon. One is better off practicing for meditative reasons first, and learning self-defense later on.
For more info, check out
chinafrominside.com zhuan falun geocities ottawa kung fu history pages beijingbaguazhang.com the bagua library jiulong bagua pa-kua.com hsing-i institute yinfu bagua