Tombalbaye, Ngarta, 1918—75, president of Chad (1960-75). Born François Tombalbaye, he Africanized his given name in 1973. A businessman and school official, he became involved in territorial politics in the 1950s and served (1959-60) as premier. Elected president in 1960, he established dictatorial control. Opposition to his policies culminated in open rebellion in 1965 by the mainly Arab north. Despite an agreement with the rebels in 1971, fighting continued. In 1975 he was deposed and killed in a military takeover.