Tobolsk (Тобо́льск; Tatar: Tubıl) is a historic capital of Siberia, now an ordinary town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia. It is located at the confluence of rivers Tobol and Irtysh. The population of the city was 92,880 in the 2002 Russian Census.
After administrative division of the territory, Tobolsk remained the seat of the Governor-General of Western Siberia until the seat was moved to Omsk in the 1820s or 1830s. Bowing to the city's authority, many Siberian towns, including Omsk, Tyumen, and Tomsk, had their original arms display the Tobolsk insignia. Omsk honors the legacy to this day.
Until the Russian Revolution of 1917, the city served as the capital of the Tobolsk guberniya. Dmitri Mendeleev and Vasily Perov are the most famous natives of the city. Some of the Decembrists were exiled and lived there as well. The city's importance declined when the Trans-Siberian Railway bypassed it in the 1890s.
In August 1917, after the February Revolution, Tsar Nicholas II and his family were brought here to live in relative luxury in the former house of the Governor-General. After the White Army approached the city in spring of 1918, the royal family was moved to Yekaterinburg and shot there, ending the imperial Romanov dynasty.
The chemist, Dmitriy Mendeleev was born in Tobolsk.
The economy of modern Tobolsk centers on a major oil refinery. Some traditional crafts, such as bone-carving, are also preserved.
The principal monuments in the kremlin are the Cathedral of St. Sophia (1683-1686), a merchant courtyard (1703-1705), an episcopal palace (1773-1775) (now it is a museum of local lore), and the so-called Swedish Chamber, with six baroque halls (1713-1716). The city contains some remarkable baroque and Neoclassical churches from the 18th and 19th centuries. Also noteworthy is a granite monument to Yermak, constructed to a design by Alexander Brullov in 1839.
The city's neighbourhood is rich in ancient kurgans and pagan shrines. Some of these date back to the 10th century BC.