, or shankbone
is the larger and stronger of the two bones
in the leg
below the knee
in vertebrates and connects the knee with the ankle bones.
The tibia is found medial and anterior to the fibula
. It is the second-longest bone in the human body, the largest being the femur
. The tibia articulates with the femur
superiorly, the fibula
laterally and with the talus
In the male, its direction is vertical, and parallel with the bone of the opposite side. In the female, it has a slightly oblique direction downward and lateralward, to compensate for the greater obliqueness of the femur.
It is prismoid in form, expanded above, where it enters into the knee-joint, contracted in the lower third, and again enlarged but to a lesser extent below.
The superior tibiofibular articulation is an arthrodial joint between the lateral condyle of the tibia and the head of the fibula.
The inferior tibiofibular articulation (tibiofibular syndesmosis) is formed by the rough, convex surface of the medial side of the lower end of the fibula, and a rough concave surface on the later side of the tibia.
The tibia is connected to the fibula by an interosseous membrane, forming a type of joint called a syndesmoses.
The tibia derives its arterial blood supply from two sources:
- the nutrient artery (main source)
- periosteal vessels derived from the anterior tibial artery