Definitions

thyroid tumour

Radiopharmacology

Radiopharmacology is the study and preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, which are radioactive pharmaceuticals. Radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field of nuclear medicine as tracers in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Many radiopharmaceuticals use technetium (Tc-99m). In the book Technetium by Klaus Schwochau, 31 different radiopharmaceuticals based on Tc-99m are listed for imaging and functional studies of the brain, myocardium, thyroid, lungs, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, skeleton, blood and tumors.

A list of nuclear medicine radiopharmaceuticals follows. Some radioisotopes* are used in ionic or inert form without attachment to a pharmaceutical, these are also included. There is a section for each radioisotope with a table of radiopharmaceuticals using that radioisotope. The sections are ordered alphabetically by the English name of the radioisotope. Sections for the same element are then ordered by atomic mass number.

  • Not all radionuclides, the radioactive portion of a radiopharmaceutical, are technically "isotopes". Although, they are commonly referred to as such. (SEE Isotope}

Calcium-47

47Ca is a beta and gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Ca-47-Ca2+ Bone metabolism IV In-vitro Not all radionuclides, the radioactive portion of a radiopharmaceutical, are technically "isotopes". Although, they are commonly referred to as such. (SEE Isotope} Non-imaging

Carbon-11

11C is a positron emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
C11-L-methyl-methionine Brain tumour imaging
Parathyroid imaging
IV In-vivo Imaging

Carbon-14

14C is a beta emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
C14-Glycocholic acid Breath test for small intestine bacterial overgrowth Oral In-vitro Non-imaging
C14-PABA (para-amino benzoic acid) Pancreatic studies Oral In-vitro Non-imaging
C14-Urea Breath test to detect Helicobacter pylori Oral In-vitro Non-imaging
C14-d-xylose Breath test for small intestine bacterial overgrowth Oral In-vitro Non-imaging

Chromium-51

51Cr is a gamma emitter.
Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Cr51-Red blood cells Red cell volume; sites of sequestration; gastrointestinal blood loss IV In-vitro Non-imaging
Cr51-Cr3+ Gastrointestinal protein loss IV In-vitro Non-imaging
Cr51-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) Glomerular filtration rate measurement IV In-vitro Non-imaging

Cobalt-57

57Co is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Co57-Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) Gastrointestinal absorption Oral In-vitro Non-imaging

Cobalt-58

58Co is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Co58-Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) Gastrointestinal absorption Oral In-vitro Non-imaging

Erbium-169

169Er is a beta emitter.

Name Treatment of Route of administration
Er169-Colloid Arthritic conditions Intra-articular

Fluorine-18

18F is a positron emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
F18-FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose) Tumour imaging
Myocardial imaging
IV In-vivo Imaging
F18-Fluoride Bone imaging IV In-vivo Imaging

Gallium-67

67Ga is a gamma emitter. See Gallium scan.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Ga67-Ga3+ Tumour imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Ga67-Ga3+ Infection/inflammation imaging IV In-vivo Imaging

Hydrogen-3

3H or tritium is a beta emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
H3-water Total body water Oral or IV In-vitro Non-imaging

Indium-111

111In is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
In111-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid) GI transit Oral In-vivo Imaging
In111-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid) Cisternography Intra-cisternal In-vivo Imaging
In111-Leucocytes Infection/inflammation imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
In111-Platelets Thrombus imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
In111-Pentetreotide Somatostatin receptor imaging IV In-vivo Imaging

Iodine-123

123I is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
I123-Iodide Thyroid uptake Oral or IV In-vivo Non-imaging
I123-Iodide Thyroid imaging
Thyroid metastases imaging
Oral or IV In-vivo Imaging
I123-o-Iodohippurate Renal imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
I123-MIBG (m-iodobenzylguanidine) Neuroectodermal tumour imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
I123-FP-CIT SPECT imaging of Parkinson's Disease IV In-vivo Imaging

Iodine-131

131I is a beta and gamma emitter.

Diagnostic

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
I131-Iodide Thyroid uptake Oral In-vivo Non-imaging
I131-Iodide Thyroid metastases imaging Oral or IV In-vivo Imaging
I131-MIBG (m-iodobenzylguanidine) Neuroectodermal tumour imaging IV In-vivo Imaging

Therapeutic

Name Treatment of Route of administration
I131-Iodide Thyrotoxicosis IV or Oral
I131-Iodide Non-toxic goitre IV or Oral
I131-Iodide Thyroid carcinoma IV or Oral
I131-MIBG (m-iodobenzylguanidine) Malignant disease IV

Iron-59

59Fe is a beta and gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Fe59-Fe2+ or Fe3+ Iron metabolism IV In-vitro Non-imaging

Krypton-81m

81Krm is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Kr81m-Gas Lung ventilation imaging Inhalation In-vivo Imaging
Kr-81m-Aqueous solution Lung perfusion imaging IV In-vivo Imaging

Nitrogen-13

13N is a positron emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
N13-Ammonia Myocardial blood flow imaging IV In-vivo Imaging

Oxygen-15

15O is a positron emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
O15-Water Cerebral blood flow imaging
Myocardial blood flow imaging
IV bolus In-vivo Imaging

Phosphorus-32

32P is a beta emitter.

Name Treatment of Route of administration
P32-Phosphate Polycythemia and related disorders IV or Oral

Samarium-153

153Sm is a beta and gamma emitter.

Name Treatment of Route of administration
Sm153-EDTMP (Ethylenediaminotetramethylenephosphoric acid) Bone metastases IV

Selenium-75

75Se is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Se75-Selenorcholesterol Adrenal gland imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Se75-SeHCAT (23-Seleno-25-homo-tauro-cholate) Bile salt absorption Oral In-vivo Imaging

Sodium-22

22Na is a positron and gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Na22-Na+ Electrolyte studies Oral or IV In-vitro Non-imaging

Sodium-24

24Na is a beta and gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Na24-Na+ Electrolyte studies Oral or IV In-vitro Non-imaging

Strontium-89

89Sr is a beta emitter.

Name Treatment of Route of administration
Sr89-Chloride Bone metastases IV

Technetium-99m

99mTc is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Tc99m-pertechnetate Thyroid uptake and thyroid imaging
Stomach and salivary gland imaging
Meckel's diverticulum imaging
Brain imaging
Micturating cystogram
First pass blood flow imaging
First pass peripheral vascular imaging
IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-pertechnetate Lacrimal imaging Eye drops In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Human albumin Cardiac blood pool imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Human albumin Peripheral vascular imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Human albumin macroaggregates or microspheres Lung perfusion imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Human albumin macroaggregates or microspheres Lung perfusion imaging with venography IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Phosphonates and phosphates Bone imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Phosphonates and phosphates Myocardial imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid) Renal imaging
First pass blood flow studies
Brain imaging
IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid) Lung ventilation imaging Aerosol inhalation In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-DMSA(V) (dimercaptosuccinic acid) Tumour imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-DMSA(III) (dimercaptosuccinic acid) Renal imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Colloid Bone marrow imaging
GI Bleeding
IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Colloid Lymph node imaging Interstitial In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Colloid Oesophageal transit and reflux imaging Oral In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Colloid Lacrimal imaging Eye drops In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-HIDA (Hepatic iminodiacetic acid) Functional biliary system imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Denatured red bood cells Red cell volume IV In-vitro Non-imaging
Tc99m-Red blood cells GI bleeding
Cardiac blood pool imaging
Peripheral vascular imaging
IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-MAG3 (mercaptoacetyltriglycine) Renal imaging
First pass blood flow imaging
IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-HMPAO (Hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime) Cerebral blood flow imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-HMPAO (Hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime) labelled leucocytes Infection/inflammation imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Sestamibi Parathyroid imaging
Non-specific tumour imaging
Thyroid tumour imaging
Breast imaging
Myocardial imaging
IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Sulesomab (IMMU-MN3 murine Fab'-SH antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody fragments) Infection/inflammation imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Technegas Lung ventilation imaging Inhalation In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Human immunoglobulin Infection/inflammation imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-Tetrofosmin Parathyroid imaging
Myocardial imaging
IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m-ECD (ethyl cysteinate dimer) Brain imaging IV In-vivo Imaging

Thallium-201

201Tl is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Tl201-Tl+ Non-specific tumour imaging
Thyroid tumour imaging
Myocardial imaging
Parathyroid imaging
IV In-vivo Imaging

Xenon-133

133Xe is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Xe133-gas Lung ventilation studies Inhalation In-vivo Imaging
Xe133 in isotonic sodium chloride solution Cerebral blood flow IV In-vivo Imaging

Yttrium-90

90Y is a beta emitter.

Name Treatment of Route of administration
Y90-Silicate Arthritic conditions Intra-articular
Y90-Silicate Malignant disease Intracavitary

References

  • Notes for guidance on the clinical administration of radiopharmaceuticals and use of sealed radioactive sources. Administration of radioactive substances advisory committee. December 1998. Produced by the National Radiological Protection Board.
  • Malabsorption In: The Merck Manual of Geriatrics, chapter 111.
  • Leukoscan summary of product characteristics (Tc99m-Sulesomab).
  • Schwochau, Klaus. Technetium. Wiley-VCH (2000). ISBN 3-527-29496-1

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