[thur-oh, thuhr-oh]
In 17th century England, Thorough was a name given by Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford to a scheme of his to establish absolute monarchy in England. Although "Thorough" is largely attributed to Strafford, its implementation can also be accredited to the Archbishop of Canterbury William Laud.

Thorough and Laud

Laud exploited his secular and religious roles to implement the policy of thorough in England. Laud used his authority as Archbishop of Canterbury to appoint only Arminian clergymen as Bishops, this in turn meant that most of the vicars that they appointed would also be Arminian. Arminianism is a sect of Protestant Christianity which believes in the "Divine Right of Kings" and the (Catholic reminiscent) "Beauty of Holiness". Laud hoped that his new, Arminian Church of England would make the English conform into believing in 'Divine Right' and supporting Charles I's personal rule and setting up of a parliament-independent monarchy.

Laud used his authority over the prerogative courts to humiliate the gentry, who were largely Puritan and Presbyterian. As Puritans and Presbyterians, the gentry were opposed to Laud's beliefs and opposed to the idea of a parliament-independent monarchy. It is arguable whether the opposition of the gentry was based on religious grounds or on grounds of their own prospects of personal gain from a limited monarchy.

Thorough and Strafford

Strafford was Lord Deputy of Ireland, and domiciled in Ireland for much of the personal rule, leaving the running of England largely down to Laud, although the application of Thorough in Ireland was entirely down to Strafford. The fear that Strafford instilled in the Irish through the policy of "Thorough" can be demonstrated when looking at the ease in which Strafford extracted subsidies from the Irish Parliament as the Second Bishops War approached during 1640.

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