is a typesetting syntax used for generating documentation in both on-line and printed form (creating filetypes as dvi
, etc., and its own hypertext format info
) with a single source file. It is implemented by a free computer program
of the same name, created and made available by the GNU Project
The main purpose of Texinfo is to provide a way to easily typeset software manuals. Similar to the LaTeX syntax, all the normal features of a book, such as chapters, sections, cross references, tables and indices are available for use in documents. Using the various output generators that are available for Texinfo, it is possible to keep several documentation types up-to-date (such as on-line documentation provided via a Web site, and printed documentation, as generated using the TeX typesetting system) using only a single source file. As the manual notes, "TeX works with virtually all printers; Info works with virtually all computer terminals; the HTML output works with virtually all Web browsers. Thus Texinfo can be used by almost any computer user."
In order to make it possible for several documentation output formats to be updated all at once, upon changing the original Texinfo file, several syntax converters are available that can be used to generate transliterations of the Texinfo file into other formats. Most of these are created using the makeinfo program, which is part of the GNU Texinfo distribution.HTML
- (Generated via makeinfo --html.) As HTML is the standard language for documents presented on the World Wide Web, this output format can effectively be used to produce online documentation pages. The manual notes that the makeinfo program attempts to restrict its output files to a certain subset of HTML markup that can be read by as many browsers as possible.DVI
- (Generated via texi2dvi.) The Device independent file format is output by the TeX typesetting system, and can be used for generating device-specific commands that can be viewed or printed; for example, translation to PostScript (ps files).PDF
- (Generated via texi2dvi --pdf or texi2pdf.) Based on the PostScript language, this format was developed by Adobe Systems for portable document interchange. Like the PostScript format, it can represent the exact appearance of a document and supports arbitrary scaling. It is intended to be platform-independent and can be viewed with a large variety of software. Texinfo uses the pdftex program, a variant of TeX, to output PDF.Docbook
- (Generated via makeinfo --docbook.) This is an XML-based mark-up language for technical documentation that bears some resemblance to Texinfo, in broad outlines. It is also possible to convert Docbook files to Texinfo, using the docbook2X program.XML
- (Generated via makeinfo --xml.) For general purposes.Info
- (Generated via makeinfo.) This is a specific format which essentially is a plain text version of the original Texinfo syntax in conjunction with a few control characters to separate nodes and provide navigational elements for menus, cross-references, sections, and so on. The Info format can be viewed with the info program.
Notable is the lack of man
as an output format from the standard Texinfo tools. True, Texinfo is used for writing the documentation of GNU
software, which typically is used in Unix
-like environments such as GNU/Linux
, where the traditional format for documentation is man. But the design rationale for the standard Texinfo tools' omission of man as an output format is that man pages have a strict conventional format, used traditionally as quick reference guides, whereas typical Texinfo applications are for tutorials as well as reference manuals. As such, no benefit is seen in expressing Texinfo content in man page format. Moreover, many GNU projects eschew man pages almost completely, referring the reader of the provided man page (which often describes itself as seldom maintained) to the Info document.
Texinfo source file
Texinfo enables structuring a document like a book with chapters, sections, cross references and indices. The source is almost plain text
, but technically it is formatted text
marked up by commands that begin with "
". A sample of a part of a source file:
@top Short Sample
* First Chapter:: The first chapter is the
only chapter in this sample.
* Index:: Complete index.
The commands mark structure such as chapters or denote a part of the source to be processed only for certain types of output.
History and status
Texinfo is used as the official documentation system for the GNU Project
. Texinfo is licensed under the GNU General Public License
The Texinfo format was created by Richard M. Stallman, while the Texinfo software distribution development was led by Brian Fox (up to version 3.8) and Karl Berry (afterwards).
Notes and references