Some vaccines are recommended only in certain areas (countries, subnational areas or at-risk populations) where a disease is common. For instance, yellow fever vaccination is on the routine vaccine schedule of French Guiana, is recommended in certain regions of Brazil but in the United States is only given to travelers heading to countries with a history of the disease. In developing countries, vaccine recommendations also have to consider poor health care access, high vaccine cost and issues with vaccine availability and storage. Sample vaccinations schedules discussed by the World Health Organization show a developed country using a schedule which extends over the first five years of a child's life and uses vaccines which cost over $700 including administration costs while a developing country uses a schedule providing vaccines in the first 9 months of life and costing only $25. This difference incorporates the facts that health care costs are much lower, many vaccines are provided at lower costs to developing nations and more expensive vaccines, often for less common diseases, are not utilized.
In 1900, the smallpox vaccine was the only one administered to children. By the 1960s, children routinely received five vaccines, for protection against (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, and smallpox), and as many as eight shots by two years of age. As of 2007, the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) now recommends vaccination against at least sixteen diseases. By two years of age, U.S. children receive as many as 24 vaccine injections, and might receive up to five shots during one visit to the doctor. The use of combination vaccine products means that, as of 2006, the United Kingdom immunisation programme consists of just 11 injections by the age of two years and a further three injections by the time of leaving school.
|By airborne droplet||1-4 days||2-3,000,000||450,000|
|Hepatitis B||Exchange of bodily fluids||6 weeks - 6 months||5,700,000 (acute)||521,000||7,996||7||600||Not reported|
|Mumps||Airborne droplets||14-21 days||477,079 (reported)||N/A||270||1||16,436||0|
|Pertussis||Airborne droplets||5-10 days||39,000,000||297,000||9,771||18||2||2|
|Rubella||Airborne droplets||5-7 days||Not reported||631,571 |
|Tetanus||Penetrating injury, |
|Tuberculosis||Airborne||3 day - 15 weeks||8,000,000||1,600,000||15,056||784||6,572||373|
|Varicella||Airborne||2 weeks||Not reported||Not reported||22,841||32||Not reported||Not reported|
The World Health Organization monitors vaccination schedules across the world, noting what vaccines are included in each country's programme, the coverage rates achieved and various auditing measures. A comprehensive list of vaccination schedules including the European Union, Africa, and Asia is available .
for children aged 11-12:
Vaccines recommended for those age 50 and older:
Vaccines needed for those age 65 and older
Vaccines recommended for healthcare workers:
As of September 2006, the United Kingdom childhood vaccination schedule uses combination immunisations where available:
|Vaccine||2 months||3 months||4 months||12 months||13 months|| 3-5 years|
| School Leaving|
|Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis,|
Inactivated Polio Vaccine,
Haemophilus influenzae (Hib)
|Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine||PCV||.||PCV||.||PCV||.||.|
|Meningitis C||.||Men C||Men C||MenC||.||.||.|
|Measles, Mumps, Rubella||.||.||.||.||MMR||MMR||.|
Notes: This schedule was amended on 4 September 2006 with the introduction of pneumococcal vaccine for babies, adjustment of the spacing of the MenC immunisations and an additional Hib booster at 12 months of age. A limited catch-up programme is now in place for pneumococcal vaccination.
According to a 2006 report, there have been "50 to 60 per cent more vaccines recorded as being administered as would be expected." The report acknowledges that entries may have been duplicated, although speculation has raised that some NHS doctors may have deliberately overstated the number of shots given to youngsters in order to claim bonuses.
|Vaccine||Age at immunization||Notes|
|Polio||6, 10 and 14 weeks||At birth, in endemic countries|
|Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis||6, 10 and 14 weeks|
|Hepatitis B||6, 10 and 14 weeks||Vaccine not widely available.|
|Haemophilus influenzae||6, 10 and 14 weeks||Vaccine not widely available.|
|Yellow Fever||9 months|| In countries where Yellow |
Fever poses a risk.
|Measles||9 months|| A second vaccination should |
According to Dr. Thomas Saari, spokesperson for the American Academy of Pediatrics, "We project over the next ten years that we'll add one to two new vaccines a year." Dr. Andrew Wakefield has said, "The next few years are likely to see the introduction of ever greater numbers of vaccines and the possibility of using combination vaccines containing up to 16 different infectious diseases, is already being discussed in the US."