Terra, Gabriel, 1873-1942, president of Uruguay (1931-38). In his early career a member of the Colorado party under the leadership of Batlle y Ordóñez, Terra served in several political and diplomatic posts. He suspended congress in 1933, disbanded the council of administration (a body created by the constitution of 1919 as a check on executive power), and abolished the constitution. After a new constitution, promulgated in 1934, restored presidential authority, Terra was reelected and ruled largely by dictatorial decree. He suppressed a serious revolt in 1935. During his administration, however, the socialization of the republic, begun by Batlle, was continued. He was succeeded by an elected president, Alfredo Baldomir.

terra-cotta(Italian; “baked earth”)

Fairly coarse, porous clay that, when fired, assumes a colour ranging from dull ochre to red. Terra-cotta objects are usually left unglazed and are often of a utilitarian kind, because of their cheapness, versatility, and durability. Small terra-cotta figures from 3000 BC have been found in Greece and others throughout the Roman Empire from the 4th century BC. The use of terra-cotta virtually died out when the Roman Empire collapsed, but it was revived in Italy and Germany in the 15th century.

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