1641 - A Treaty of Offensive and Defensive Alliance is signed by Portugal and the Dutch Republic on July 12. The treaty has no effect in the Portuguese colonies under Dutch rule since it was not respected by both parties.
1643 - Also in the context of England's religious turmoil, the English Parliament calls upon "learned, godly and judicious Divines" to meet at Westminster Abbey to provide advice on issues of worship, doctrine, government and discipline of the Church of England. Their work eventually produces the Westminster Confession of Faith, completed in 1646. This Calvinist confession became and remains the 'subordinate standard' of doctrine in the Church of Scotland, and has been influential within Presbyterian churches worldwide.
China, in 1644: The invading Manchu army, with the help of Ming general Wu Sangui, captures Beijing. This marks the beginning of the Qing Dynasty (also known as the Manchu Dynasty), the last imperial dynasty of China.